Information on Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism and Aspergers syndreome - common Autism Spectrum Disorders


This is a selection of notes from over two years of behavioral intervention sessions with a young child who ultimately recovered completely from Autism. It includes many curricula ("drill sheets"), therapists' notes, and parents' notes, covering (in part) his development from no pretend play skills all the way to fully independent, spontaneous, creative play.

The notes are by the parents, Megan and Jim Sumlin (pseudonyms), who feel strongly that this information should be freely available to all who might benefit from it. They ask only that these drills belong in the public domain, and are not to be claimed or copywritten by any person who is or will in the future be seeking monetary gain for wide distribution of same. Feel free to re-distribute this document, but please include this entire preface.

These notes are just one part of a comprehensive program guided by a behavior analyst; there were other parts of the total program, not included here, that were necessary to the child's development and eventual recovery. They are specific to one individual child. Use them as a resource to help you plan your child or student's curriculum. What works for one child will not work for all. While much of the material here addresses problems common to many or most children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, you will want to select carefully based on individual needs, learning style, and personality.


A few notes on terminology:

Discriminative Stimulus (SD)

This is the instruction given to the child.



This is the response expected or desired from the child.


No-No-Prompt (NNP)

This is one specific technique for presenting the "Discriminative Stimulus," then prompting (providing the "R") if the child responds incorrectly.


Time Out

This is a brief removal of all reinforcement, where the child must sit and do nothing. This is meant to reduce certain unwanted behaviors but it has no moral or emotional overtones; it is not a punishment for "being bad."



This is a reward for a correct response, which may be anything the child loves: a bit of chocolate, a piggy-back ride, an enthusiastic "You're so great!" Proper reinforcement is the key to learning.


Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)

Much more common in these notes is Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. In addition to reinforcement for getting the right answer, the child was frequently praised for unprompted appropriate behaviors (in place of undesirable, stereotypical behaviors). For example, when playing with dolls, the therapist may say, "I'm glad you're not banging the characters together," or as the notes say in many places, "DRO'd flexibility"--unprompted spontaneity. Remembering to "catch 'em being good" takes a lot of practice, but it is essential to the development of a truly natural repertoire of age-appropriate skills.



This drill lasted with different names for over two years. The descriptions on the cover sheet for the first part of this drill were as follows:
Bring [little bro's name] in and have him play with a toy while [name] watches (if brother isn't available, you play with the toy). Do not let [name] interrupt for a long time.


Create your own SDs like:
"You can't grab...but you can watch." "Let me do it." "Hey, I'm/[bro's name]'s playing with that", etc.

Eventually, allow him a turn and share; sometimes grab it from him and prompt him to express displeasure with you (get him to say "don't grab it", etc.) Ask how he feels about you interrupting his turn (and prompt appropriately), etc.



some notes made during the process

Later we added this to the drill cover sheet:
Work on Parallel Play here and in other drills, but report it not only here (or other specific drills parallel play occurred in), but in general, so we never get into the situation where he's parallel played in too many drills too often!
A new cover sheet appeared approximately two months after the above began. We suppose this drill is one of the first that some may call a peer imitation drill,though we aren't sure.
Description: You do one thing while he does another. Prompt comments from him about what YOU'RE doing. He must show an interest in what you do.
Therapist and Parent Notes [P.N.]:
Nice sharing with brother. After some time I let him ask for turn.
Did well w/brother and reacted appropriately when I grabbed the toy from him. Needs work on letting me have a turn. I asked him if I can have turn and he said "no".
Played with Mr. Potato Head with brother.
Played Bang a Ball with brother, daddy and me (Megan) and did fine.
Played Mr. Potato Head again (sorry - had to come up with something quickly to end stimming on break).
Hammering wooden pegs. He was not watching brother play. I had to prompt him to watch brother. He still didn't watch. Finally, I told him he would have to stop playing with brother b/c he was being rude. He finally said he would stop being rude. Then played nicely.
Both boys were good at sharing and taking turns [In addition we had a turn-taking drill that began with building with blocks and progressed to playing board games...this drill went on across all three years of therapy]. He even invited me to play. At one time he didn't give bro a turn & then admitted that he was being SELFISH. When I grabbed toy away, he acted appropriately and said "You're being selfish [therapist name]; don't grab!"
Roly Poly w/brother. Brother not really interested. We then watched brother hammering some stuff. [Name] didn't get a turn b/c he wasn't watching brother play.
Brother again not too interested. [Name] was patient and attentive and offered me a turn. When I grabbed toy from him he said "that's not nice".
Brother sleeping so I did this drill with a book. He did well.
We took turns drawing. He was attentive and responded well.
Played with memory game. Excellent attention.
Brothers played w/schoolhouse. He was distracted and spacy. He pushed the toy at me too hard and I had him hand it to me again nicely.
He wouldn't share his toy w/me after I shared mine w/him so I took mine back and told him I did this b/c he wouldn't share. He was very unhappy.
Used one of his old toys that is now brother's. Brother didn't know how to use it so I showed [name] how to show brother. [Name] had to take brother's hand and place it on toy. Nice job.
He was non-compliant w/me in the beginning. It took a while for me to reel him in (w/Jim's help of course). After he was under control and I actually started to move around and being a distractor, he put a toy car in a specific place and told me not to touch it! I let him sit down then I picked it up. He was obviously upset but I got him under control. It was great after that...Switching attention [something we were working on within drills now].
Sharing was great. We played with the shape sorter. He understood when I was selfish and rude and v.v.
Sesame Street toy. Brother played and he watched. He was attentive and even commented on what brother was doing.
Brought him into the living room to play Magna Doodle with brother. He didn't want to share and when he was told to give toy to brother, he threw it at him. The drill was interrupted with a t.o. due to his tongue clicking.
P.N. - Switch rooms if possible.
[Playdate], [name] and me took turns blowing bubbles in the living room. Good job.
P.N. - Let's tone down the talk and get into more quiet play and sharing (try to let the talk be more natural...less structured). Also parallel play with him -- while he plays, play w/something else w/ the object. i.e., both peacefully co-exist. Notes please.
Played with cars on mat with brother. Working on getting him to tolerate brother playing with stuff in his own way.
Parallel Play combined with Arts & Crafts drill. He's busy looking at my work and not at his own. Began babbling so he got a t.o.
P.N. - Work on sharing with brother as much as possible!
(In "School"). He needed to be prompted when [other therapist] grabbed his checkers from Connect 4.
Brothers played with doll house. He was restless while watching but didn't touch. They read together too, but he kept trying to stim on brother.
Played stacking rings w/brother. I had him hand his brother the rings in the correct order but did not allow him to place the rings on the stand. His job was to help his brother only.
With [other therapist] we took turns playing Perfection game. He had to be prompted to tell [other therapist] not to grab. He tried to grab a piece from me and lost his turn. Didn't do it again.
Brothers and I played shape sorter. He explained to brother how to play. Tried to grab out of brother's hands once.
We played Squiggly Worms. We took turns. He cheated a couple of times b/c he wound up the apple twice, so I told him that he lost his turn. He understood and played nicely. We both took turns.
Animal puzzle - waited patiently. When I was finished asked me if he could go now. Didn't let me put piece in and I cried because he didn't share with me.
Very nice playing with brother. Helped brother fix his animal puzzles. Brother really cooperated. [Name] did nice job and didn't stim on brother.
He built a house of blocks. I handed him blocks and he built. Did nicely. Waited patiently for me to give him blocks and didn't grab. Good cooperation.
We played with a puzzle. He did well. Needed a prompt to say "share with me".
Brothers played with shape sorter and a car. Brother took the car and [name] ran after him. He had to be reminded to let him share. Showed him how to use shape sorter and gave him pieces. Shared his food w/brother. Asked brother if he "wanted one"? (Chinese noodles).
Played with bubble gun. He really wanted it and I wouldn't let him. He asked why and I told him b/c "I'm selfish". Then we shared.
P.N. - Add in Sustaining Conversation (see Sheet).
Shared Tinker Toys. He played appropriately. Conversation about my friend Patti and when we went on vacation together. I made Patti out of Tinker Toys.
Brothers and I played w/Lincoln Logs. He didn't play appropo; kept knocking down what we built and putting roof on his face. I put them away and he got VERY upset.
We played with a cash register. I was buying pumpkin. Incorporated the Sustaining Convers drill. Did nicely. I talked about Halloween events. He asked appropro ?s. He needed some prompting but it stopped at a minimum. Good work.
Played Perfection game. Very good. He played and shared nicely. Great eye contact
Parallel Play - with Play Doh. Talked about what we were making, etc. He did ok with some prompting.
Played with puzzles. I had him carry them over to me from on top of the dresser. We talked about my dog and the boo boo on her eye. He needed prompts...w/o them either asked "why?" or was silent.
Watched brother play w/shape sorter. We talked about what brother should be for Halloween. He had a hard time watching brother w/o touching him. He would either try to touch him or not pay attn. Had hard time sitting still.
We played w/spaceship we built from Tinker Toys. I ignored him, rolled over toys and broke them to show him how it feels when he does that. [Other therapist] was selfish. Then she shared and had to go home and even took "her" toy with her. He was upset. Said "could you give me that toy...please?" She explained that she had to go home.
Sharing and play was great. We played house and I visited him at home. We watched TV and then went to the park. I grabbed a lot of toys from him. He kept saying "Hey you're being selfish, you're not sharing." I kept pushing him for more comments. Prompted him to say "please, let's's better that way. I want to play also". "That's can't take it away", etc. He caught on and he did great with this and had very good eye contact [THIS IS THE THERPIST ENTRY REFERRED TO IN ****PN A LITTLE FURTHER ON....]
Tinker Toys with [playdate]. Parallel play. Nice talking about what they were making. Then helped her with shape sorter. He needed prompts to watch her.
P.N. - Do this a lot with other "kid" in joint therapist School drill. He needs it badly in school.
Brothers shared dolls; at first played well. Brother sat on [name's] doll set-up. I asked him how he felt about that and he said he "didn't like it". I reminded him that he did this in school himself. Gave him a T.O. for not looking 3x during this drill while I was talking. He made no attempt to look at me when he answered.
P.N. **** Everyone look at [therapist note/date]. We have to generalize his comments out more. Prompt him [script him] through this kind of thing often. Thanks!
We watched a little girl playing Tic Tac Toe in the park. Then we played. I took his turn and we worked on saying "you're skipping me; don't take my turn." Needed prompts.
Played Tinker Toys w/brother. Nice parallel play for some time. He pulled toy from brother. Worked on having him watch what brother was doing. We talked about what he was doing. Sust Conv was not bad. Went to park and he sang rock-a-bye baby w/me while swinging the baby to sleep on the swing.
We played w/the doll set. I played in the "living room"; he played in the "kitchen". He watched a lot of what I was doing and seemed curious. Asked spontaneously "What are you doing?"!! He then started to play with his kitchen set. I threw in a little of the sharing stuff. He was good at this, esp when I started grabbing. He's gotten better at expressing his thoughts in such situations. Good eye contact
P.N. - THIS DRILL HAS CHANGED -- Please read NEW first page. The focus is on conversation and getting him to comment on what you're doing.
He played with blocks and so did I. I made a big tower, used a lot of blocks. Had to prompt him to ask me about what I was making. He was a bit curious but seemed more engaged w/his own work. I prompted him by slowly taking his blocks sort of inadvertently so that he can at least look at what I was doing. This stimulated him to look but I think he got the impression that I was being selfish. I started talking about what I was making. This got his interest a little but he still didn't really care to ask what I was making.
I did shape sorter while he played w/Legos. At one point I started to hit block on shape sorter. I kept doing this for a long time until he said "you're putting that in the wrong place", so I asked him to help me. Then he kept watching me and didn't go back to his work so I had to tell him to. Then I walked away while we were playing; he didn't notice, so I prompted him to say "where are you going? come back and play with me".
P.N. - Be creative. Try to engage his curiosity in your work [refer to therapist note/date]. Make what you're doing something you know he'd be into.
He made a train out of Thistle Blocks and I used Legos. My Lego animals were talking to ea other. He was looking intently and when he started asking one of the Lego animals ?s, I prompted him to ask ME about what I was playing, doing, etc. and then he went back to his work and I asked him ?s and then prompted more ?s and asked him for help.
He played with med-sized Legos and I played w/smaller Legos. He was interested in small Legos and indep asked me what I was making so I told him and invited him to play w/small Legos too. I asked him what he was going to make and he said an airplane just like you. Then I told him my airplane is going to [state]. He told me (w/o prompt) his is going to [another state].
I took out blocks, built a house w/Lincoln Logs and asked if I could use the fireman doll he was playing with. He gave it to me & played w/the blocks. Asked if he could have it back b/c I share so nicely. I told him as soon as I was log cabin went on fire & the fireman came & put it out & knocked the house down. He was very interested. I had to prompt "what are you doin?" when I was building the house, but was very interested in the fire. Asked good ?s e.g. "why are you destroying the house?" DRO.
Good cooperation, eye contact and symbolic play. I asked him what he was doing as he played. He spoke appropriately about what he was doing. Good playing with figures. He asked me what I was doing also. Asked to play w/my characters too. Good reciprocal stuff happening.
Tinker Toys with [playdate]. They each built something to climb. Then prompted for him to look at hers. She looked at his w/o prompting.
Blocks. I started out building a tower. He didn't seem too interested in it. I prompted him to look at me and ask ?s. He didn't engage in any of these activities. He also wasn't too interesting in playing with the blocks.
I played with Lite Brite, which he loves. Had no problem gaining his interest. What was great was that he listened when I told him to play with his Lincoln Logs and was really into making a bldg. Needed prompts to ask me ?s, but asked right away and answered my ?s immediately. DRO.
I played with Thistle Blocks; he played with shape sorter. I yelled "oh no" -- Megan prompted him to ask "what's wrong?" - I told him that I needed a piece but I couldn't find it. Megan prompted him to ask if he could "help" me. I said "yes". Then he helped me and found piece.
I played with maze toy; he w/train tracks. Prompted him to ask me about what I was doing. Then prompted to ask me to play trains w/him and I built by myself and he built by himself. Prompted a conversation.
Played with the Musical Band toys. We had a little concert. School children came to see us. He named the band "Guitaro". He sang a little -- pretty good. In general this scene was a little bit slow and lacking in enthusiasm. He seemed a little too concerned with detail i.e., school bags in school audience. I ignored his comments and moved on [our Playmobile school characters had school bags and he always persev on them]. Also told him they were on a class trip.
Great work. He talked a lot about what he was playing with, i.e., doll watching television. I acted like there was no food in the refrig and prompted him to say "What should we do?", etc. Great job. Great eye contact We pretended to eat. He actually had a chicken cutlet.
Very good. He played with Kerplunk game and I took out the GAK copy machine. He was looking at me and said "I want to do that". I prompted him to say "Can we do that together?" and DRO'd. Asked him to finish playing with Kerplunk first.
I played with Spaghetti & Meatballs game and he played w/shape sorter. It started out fine. I messed up pieces and said "whoops!" and he said "What's wrong?" !!! DRO!!! Then I tried to prompt him to ask me what I liked about the game but he was too busy grabbing my pieces. I shut down drill b/c he was not listening to me and was touching my toy.
He played with bubble gun and I played with his ball and Velcro glove. He needed prompts to ask me about glove, comments I made to incite reaction. He did ask on his own "How did that happen?" when the ball wouldn't fall. Big DRO.
I played with Bristle Blocks and he played w/regular blocks. I prompted his "That's a great car, [therapist name]" then I asked him what he liked about it. He said "they way it drives", then I asked him how he likes the shield I made on my car. He said "it's great" (appropro emoting - DRO), then he said - "Look at the house I made". I told him that I really like it, esp the roof. DRO'd his initiation of my attention to his project.
Played with Floam and he was using markers. He came over to me and started leaning all over me while he was looking. I prompted him to ask if he could help me fix the Floam (I'd said it was broken). However, he simply (after he took prompt) walked away and began playing w/the Spaghetti game so I asked him if I could play w/him and prompted him to explain the game to me.
I played w/Shape & Color coaster while he read. He became interested immediately and asked if he could play w/me (DRO). I did it wrong and he UNPROMPTED told me it was wrong and explained how to play. DRO. I said "ouch" -- took 2x saying it before he responded "What happened?" DRO'd.
Did really nice job playing along w/what I was doing. I sort of started my own classroom and pretended to play school. I asked him what he was doing and he said I'm pretending to feed the baby. DRO'd. He then switched to what I was doing -- played school really nicely and was quite spontaneous w/his verbalizations. He behaved nicely and showed good discipline and behavior as he pretended to talk for the students. DRO. He also stayed with the pretend situation and didn't bring in "[his name], [brother's name] or [daddy's name]".
I colored w/markers, he played w/Mr. Potato Head. Kept making "tsk" noises, acting annoyed. He said, 1st time on his own: "What's the matter?" DRO'd. Told him my marker was running out of ink. Incorporated "What should I do?" Said "Use another pen" - DRO Then said "ouch" - he said "what?" DRO. I said it hurts my fingers to press so hard - Asked if he likes my drawing. Said "it's good" spontaneously. DRO'd.
I played Etch-A-Sketch. He played with hourglass-shaped maze. He was really into his toy so this prob wasn't the best choice, but I worked w/it anyhow. Made disappointed sound and he said "what?" I prompted what happened. Then I told him that I made a mistake. I asked him how it looks. Prompted him to give answ. Then he indep asked me to look at his toy. DRO'd.
I played the piano w/the songbook while he played with the maze toy. At first he wasn't really paying any attention. [Other therapist] suggested hitting the wrong key. I did this and began singing off- key. This got his attn and he came over and pushed my hands away and tried to play! I prompted him to ask me if he could play w/me and told him that if he did then he needs to play w/it in the same way I do. He listened and tried to following the storybook. Very difficult for him.
He played w/nuts and bolts. I played w/plastic animals. I made animals have funny conversation. It took him a couple of seconds to catch on but then he indep took another animal and joined me. Lots of DRO.
I played w/farm animals, he played with animated characters. I pretended to need help with gathering animals. I spoke out loud and he came over to help. He appropriately used Jiminy Cricket to help. Lots of DRO after we were done playing.
I had drumsticks and he had the piano. He was staring at my drumsticks while he was playing so I pointed this out to him and told him if he wants to play with them to ask. He did, so I gave him one stick and we banged toy together to the beat of "Jingle Bells". Then I played "Jingle Bells" on the piano while he played the drumsticks and we sang it together.
Not too great. He was playing with train tracks and I was playing with an airplane. To get his attention I put the BIG airplane on the tracks. He didn't seem to care or think that the airplane didn't belong on tracks even though I was referring to it as "look at my choo-choo train". Finally got his attention by grabbing one of his trains. He wanted it back and asked for it nicely. Didn't really care to engage in play w/what I was doing though.
He played w/train as he was before drill and I played w/his new 7 Dwarfs soaps (Doc and Sneezy). Sneezy asked Doc to help him with his cold. He quickly came over and began playing with me. He's wanted these soaps in a bad way I hear, so I decided to really test him. I drove my soap and started playing with the train by myself and he followed me and began playing with me again. Talking about where we'd go, etc. DRO'd.
He played w/train tracks. Did a real good job. DRO'd. I took a doll & changed it's diaper and powdered it. He showed an interest...came over and asked "What are you doing?" DRO'd. I said the baby's wet and needs a change. Afterwards I fed baby and asked to play w/him. He agreed and let me and doll play. Very spontaneous comments. Great initiation. Lots of DRO.
He was reading a book. I brought in blocks (mini) to play w/ - he came over immediately and attempted to play with blocks and two dwarfs. I took them away at first b/c he didn't ask. I had to prompt him a little only. Did nicely afterwards. Creative playing. DRO.
Great job! Playing with animals and Disney characters on the Ferris wheel. We made an amusement park w/zoo animals and farm animals. Characters took turns on the Ferris Wheel and visited zoo. He commented a lot on all aspects of play. With Belle & the Beast he had a big scene where he had a cool romantic exchange of words. Belle: "I missed you so much" - Beast: "Me too!" Very cute. DRO'd.
He was using Mickey Light game and I was doing a puzzle. I tried fitting the Barney puzzle piece into the small puzzle and got upset b/c it didn't fit. He looked over and said, "No, not Barney!" Prompted him to say "Let me help you" and then we worked together. DRO'd.
He played w/matching clown puzzle and I played w/Mole game. He was very interested in his task but still unable to attend to my task. Gave me reinf when I won and indep said "I hope you win" as I was playing. Nice job.
He wanted to play w/Gak all night so.... He was really into keyboard while he was dancing. I took out Gak. Took lots of oo-ing and ah-ing from me [other therapist] and Megan for him to notice. Finally he came over and got interested so I went back to the piano. He came over so I went back to the Gak. Then he came. I started playing with something else and he said "help me". Make sure he says " me". See Language section.
He was playing with dolls and doll house stuff. I sat next to him & played w/diff dolls w/other furniture. He glanced over at what I was doing and then grabbed the baby doll from me. I asked him what he needed to do..he gave right answ. "ask to play w/you" but continued to grab. I told him a better way of doing it. Then he interacted nicely w/me.
P.N. - Please work ULTRA hard on making sure he doesn't walk away from the situation -- physically prompt him back! Thanks.
He did puzzle - I played w/trains. First, he screeched for help - I had him ask nicely. Then he walked over and tried to put the gates down on the train tracks. I purposely left them open. I told him that I was playing w/ them and that's how I want them. Then he asked to play w/me. DRO. I purposely did things that I knew he wouldn't like (using the train backwds, going in the opposite direction from him, leaving the gates open, etc.) -- he kept trying to stop me, but I told him that I was playing w/it first so he has to play by my rules.
He played w/cowboy dolls -- I played w/Light & Learn. Prompted "Can I play with you?" b/c he was watching me. I said "sure" then moved on to dolls. He asked again if he could play (prompted) and I said yes and we played. He was cowboy and I was horse. Tried to walk away w/cowboy and a bull but I pulled him back and prompted "I never walk away from people b/c..." etc.
I sat behind him as he was coloring in book and I built w/Legos. Waited until he was really into it and then said in a relatively quiet voice - "[Name], what are you doing?" He turned around to look at me and answered & asked me what I was making. Tons of DRO!!! I prompted him to ask me if I wanted to color w/him. I said yes and we colored together. Prompted him to intermittently praise my work (I did the same for him), comment on what he was doing and ask me questions about my work.
He was playing w/his animals, talking to Jim. I started building w/Legos and talking to my characters. He came over spontaneously with his two lions. I turned this situation into a lesson where the two lions were lost in the city b/c they wandered away from their mommy in the jungle. The Forest Rangers helped them find their way back. Watch out for when he names his characters and tends to make up weird, asinine names -- like "Selfy"...and when you ask him to name it something else he tends to use a different version of the same, i.e., "Selfy" becomes "Sofie", etc. I told him he has to have different, not similar, names.
P.N. - This will be avoided with new prompt system. [I guess "scripting", i.e. - major amounts of prompting, started being interjected in all drill at this point in the therapy.]
He read and I played with the Magic 8 ball. He began to watch me so I prompted him to ask what I was doing, how it works, can he play w/me, have a turn, etc. He showed genuine interest. DRO'd interest.
Great! I played w/baby doll and puppies (made a house setting). The baby was crying, dog pooped on the carpet, etc. He came over and asked what was wrong. I told him the entire situation. I was the baby-sitter. Needed help. I prompted him with some answers, suggestions, and questions; he accepted all. Nice eye contact and he really got into this nicely. DRO'd.
He was playing with animals and I began playing guitar. He immediately came over and began touching the guitar and telling me to play a song. I prompted him to ask to play with me and to play a song.
He played with bulls and I played with Big Bird bus. Prompted him to initiate interaction w/me and asked Big Bird to take them to the farm. Big Bird would drive away and then I prompted him to call him back. They went to a variety of places. He accepted prompts, elaborated generally well but then told Big Bird that bulls were on the couch. I stopped the game and prompted him with "when I stop pretending, people won't want to play with me", etc. and other variants.
I was using the chalkboard and he was playing with the animals. When I got up to get an eraser, he went over to the chalkboard and began touching it. I said that I was there first and prompted him to ask to play w/me. Continuous prompting for appropriate play interactions.
He was playing w/Eggosaurus and I used miniature animals. Pretended animals were diving off a cliff. He came over and asked appropriately "What are you playing?" and it flowed from there. I also did Q&A, not from list but things that were relevant to task at hand, i.e., "What are you supposed to be thinking about right now?" Answer: "I should be thinking about what I'm doing right now only.", etc. Nice eye contact DRO'd.
Two dolls went to Dwarf school. I had him initiate interaction by asking if his doll could come in a car with mine. His doll did wonderfully answ Q&As in Dwarf school so she was able to drive in car. My doll had to answ more ?s (he was still listening to my doll answ even though he was playing with car). DRO'd eye contact when I was telling him something.
He was playing w/school house and I played w/animals. He was really cute -- basketball hoop broke off and he said "oh no" and whispered "sorry" to hoop. It was adorable. Then he asked (indep) to play w/me in his way "What are you playing?" -- I prompted him to say "Can I play w/you?" and then we played for a little while and I told him that I wanted to play w/the animals alone again. I prompted him to say "OK, now I'll play w/the school" and we went back to parallel play again.
He was playing with animals and I was using the timber blocks. He called to me from across the room -- I prompted Q&A #6 and then told him to come over and talk to me. Prompted him to ask to play w/me. We wound up combining the animals w/the blocks. He was rigid about this block [therapist made drawing of arched "bridge" block here] resting on top of this block [drawing of cylindrical block]. Q&A #11.
I played with pins & bowling ball. He played w/animals and Big Bird bus. I pretended to have a blast knocking down the pins. He came over and just watched. I said "hello [name]" and invited him to play but he said "no, you're supposed to talk to my pig" and I said "no I'm talking to're my friend, not the pig. The pig is what you're playing with." He had no trouble w/this and continued w/me nicely. Needed constant prompting with eye contact when I talked as well as while we played bowling.
Great. He played w/dolls. I played with Shape N Color. He immed became interested. Came over and said "that's not the way you do it" and I prompted his "I do it a different way". He tried to grab it out of my hands. I stopped him and prompted "Can I please show you the way I do it?" I said sure and prompted him to explain what he was doing. Prompted eye contact during this. Then we played w/it taking turns.
I was building w/Legos while he was reading. He walked (DRO) over and asked to play w/me. I told him not now I'm busy bldg and then prompted him to ask me "What are you bldg?" I told him a garage for my crocodile. This was sufficiently absurd to get a response. He told me crocs don't live in garages.... P.N. - Great...this makes him think! ....He participated well in play and gave me advice while still doing his stuff. Then we played a game together. He (w/prompts) is getting much better at conversing while playing and commenting on other people. DRO'd.
He was reading and I was using the Labyrinth. I used a bead instead of the ball. This caught his attn and he walked over w/the book to see (he didn't touch - DRO'd). He asked why I wasn't using the ball (needed some prompting to find the right words but it was his idea to ask). After I answered he sat in front of me and read aloud. I told him that if he doesn't want to play w/me but wants to sit near me he needs to read silently. He listened and stopped reading aloud (DRO!)
[Name] and [playdate] were playing with a different set of blocks. [Playdate] started to build a crane and he spontaneously went over to him and asked "What are you doing?" BIG DRO! He asked to play w/him and to use the screwdriver. Then they pretended to build a cowboy house w/Legos. They decided parts they needed to build a house and garage. He needed some constant prompting for eye contact but was good otherwise.
We were outside. He and I were kicking around a ball. When he was running after it I started playing hopscotch. Prompted him to tell me that I shouldn't have walked away while we were playing. I apologized and told him I was bored. Played hopscotch again and he watched. Prompted "Show me how to play" -- He did it (hopscotch) slowly, but correctly.
He played with Duplo bldg kit while I did puzzle. I occasionally called him to look at my progress. DRO'd eye contact and prompted him to ask me to look at his. Worked on commenting on others' work w/o being a participant. Some prompting needed for eye contact Verbalization and affect were ok.
Nice job...tried to do what [other therapist name/date of entry--last entry] did in terms of commenting on ea others' play w/o being a participant. It was a bit hard b/c as soon as he saw me bldg w/Legos he was tempted to come over and play w/me. He asked appropriately and affect was good. E.C. was really good, especially when I asked him to hand me something (on purpose). He'd look at me as he handed it over. Lots of DRO and prompting for self-praise.
He's getting so much better at this. Today in school [this therapist is also a shadow] he handed another child something he Drove with totally appropriate verbalization and then went back to his work. He worked on lacing cards (at beg I went over pulling string all the way through until it stops). I worked on puzzle. Prompted him to ask me about how my work was going (needed phys prompting at 1st and then got it). Heavily praised his questions of me and his verbalizations about his work (even though they were fully prompted).
P.N. - Please always be sure to get him to comment on YOUR play (See [therapist name/date of entry]).
Nice job. Prompted him to comment on my play (I made a zoo cage). He accepted all prompts. E.C. needed more prompting but it wasn't that bad. He built four boats. Great job -- put seal in water -- recommended some other animals to go in my cage - DRO'd for commenting.
P.N. - Your game should be more interesting and reinforcing than his to attract his interest (e.g., guitar, fishing game, Squiggly Worms -- ask us). Don't let him join you FOR A WHILE (even if he asks). Prompt comments from him about what you're doing and you must always make comments about what he's doing (to model). His REWARD after a LONG SESSION of Parallel Play w/comments is that you let him join you, turning it into very regular play. Please take notes re: the above. Thanks.
I played with maze game and he played with Safari Sam. He wanted to play w/me but I told him I wanted to play by myself. I commented as he was playing and he answered me but needed prompts to glance at me. Prompted comments on my play. My toy was broken and he said "I'll help you" - Prompted him to ask instead of tell me. At the end I invited him to play with me.
P.N. - Read yellow-highlighted notes previous page and add the following concepts:
- Make sure he sits close to you - Prompt the following Q&A for this drill:
Q: What should you do if you see someone w/a really fun/neat toy?
A: I should ask them about it.
- Remember...we're rewarding him for good parallel play by inviting him over AFTER A WHILE for cooperative play. We're building up his tolerance for parallel play.
He sat close. He was reading and I took out Trouble game and started playing with it. At first he glanced but wasn't too interested. I prompted Q&A.....this was good. He continued to look at his books and I rearranged the colored thimbles of the Trouble game so that none were matching. This caught his attn immediately. He came over to play. I prompted him to ask ?s about what I was doing. I also told him to continue reading. He did and I asked him ?s too. After he was done reading he asked to play and asked more questions. Big DRO for commenting and saying that he can teach me how to play the right way.
P.N. - Please be sure to read our notes on previous pages.
I played with baby Shape Sorter. He played w/Tinker Toys. At first he said I'll play with you and I told him I wanted to do it myself. Then he tuned me out and needed a lot of prompting (Q&A) to ask me about my game. Then commented more naturally. I asked him about what he was making as we went along. I became bored w/my toy and joined him. He was OK with this (I prompted him to invite me to play w/him) and we built a swing together. P.N. - The Shape Sorter may not have been interesting enough. Always choose something VERY interesting to HIM for you to play with.
I played w/Smart Little Driver; he played w/his animals. Was really interested in playing w/me -- he waited a long time. I prompted him to comment on my toy instead of singing along with it or looking at it and leaving his toy aside. He needed prompting to continue to play w/his toy and look at me and not my toy when commenting on it. Used the Q&A to get comments -- When he was able to do this for awhile he got to play w/me. Had to take turns. I went first. This went well but when I was putting it away he started touching it. Got him under control with control statements, "Look, I can't stop touching this. Could I get a t.o. etc. if I don't stop?" This worked. DRO for controlling himself.
I played with dolls and school bus. He played w/Chinese Checker set. I let him start playing by himself so he would get into it, but when I came over he was totally distracted. I used ?s about his game to try to re-involve him but it didn't work by itself and he needed scripting & control statements to go back to his game. He did and then was able to control answ me or questioning me and then go back to his game. Lots of DRO for being able to shift back and forth.
I played w/Snackin' Safari and he played w/his band. We sat about 2 feet apart. I think my toy wasn't as interesting to him as it should have been but I still got his attn by pretending not to know HOW to play w/ the toy and asking for help. This caught his attn and he looked up and gave me a perfect explanation as to how I should be playing. Big DRO. I couldn't get him to come over and play though b/c he actually said "I like my toy better and I want to play alone". I thought that was a pretty good reason so I asked if I could play with him. He said "When I'm done you could play"!!! This prompted me to take away his toys which in turn prompted him to appropriately say I was "rude" and should "share". DRO for pointing this out. I also told him he was selfish for not letting me play with him. Reviewed some Q&As also.
He was doing a puzzle and I was playing with Little Tykes furniture & dolls. He was great and asked me about what I was playing with immediately. Lots of DRO & I prompted him to tell me what he was doing. I asked some ?s about his puzzle (some phys prompts & statements to look at me & not my toys). I was using large paintbrush to dust the furniture. He was really into this but really controlled himself (not easy). Big DRO. He finished his puzzle and then asked me to join him. Great job!
He was threading cards and I was setting up Honey Bear Funny Bear game. He was really cute at 1st. He said "hey, wait for me!" I told him I was doing it myself and prompted him to ? me (Q&A re: playing w/something "cool"). I asked him about his - still needed prompt to look. Finally I invited him to join me.
He was playing w/doll set. I started to play Perfection. He said "Are we going to play that b/c I'm being a good boy?" I said "how do you know you're being good?" He said "b/c I'm sitting quietly and not playing with my hands." DRO for the self-awareness but didn't let him play. He cont'd with his activity and commented on my game but needed prompting w/looking. Prompts from me were comments like "I don't know how to play this", "I can't turn the time", etc. Finally, I asked him if he wanted to play. He said as soon as I'm done I'll come (DRO'd this afterwards). He put away his things and came to play. We did "eenie meenie" to chose who goes first.
He played w/Mr. Mighty Mind and me w/Playschool guitar. He immed wanted it. Used scripting to get him to go back to his toy and ask ?s about mine, commenting on "cool"ness. Had to prompt phys to get him to look at me and not toy. Then I got bored after he played w/his toy for awhile. Told him he could play w/it but first asked how to play his toy. Lots of DRO and got to play with guitar. Self-pride statements, etc.
He played with abacus and I played with fire truck. He had a really hard time and was very creative at first in how he tried to dissuade me from my toy. He told me that the fire truck is for only one person and it is only for children. Q&A rules, cool game. Scripted him out of this. Needed to prompt comments and phys intervention & script looking at me and not my toy (like [name/entry date]). I asked him to join me before he finished his toy. He came to play but wanted to play w/fire truck by himself. Almost got a T.O. for being really rigid about this but scripting and T.O. warning were effective. DRO'd self- control. Notably, he used thinking/feeling statements to describe what he was feeling when he wanted to play game. DRO & I countered this w/scripting about how I felt when he didn't want to play w/me.
He played w/Teddy Bear puzzle, I played w/his dolls (he really wanted them earlier). He wanted my dolls badly and scripting and phys interruptions were not enough to make him stop touching them. He was really losing control, so scripted about possible T.O. He stopped it. DRO'd for gaining self-control but soon lost it when playing w/his toys. Began clapping blocks together -- again T.O. scripting worked. Scripted for sitting still too. He finally got under control but wasn't allowed to play w/toy I was playing w/. We talked about why and what to remember about it for next time so it doesn't happen again.
He was reading "Really Rosie". I started playing Honey Bear, Funny Bear. He commented on the game but didn't come over to play until I asked for help on how to play. He was hesitant to leave his book but I pretended to be sad that he didn't come over. This emotional appeal prompted him to help me. I used the moment to script feeling and thoughts related to helping others and making them and in turn yourself feel good.
He was playing w/police doll and helicopter. I took out doll house. He hadn't played with it in a long time. Prompted comments about my dolls and made them about his. He was semi-interested. When I started to pretend that my doll house was on fire, he came to the rescue. Then I told him I wanted to play by myself. He didn't care. Talked about how it felt when I told him that how sometimes it's ok to play by ourselves but it's important to say it nicely to not hurt someone's feelings. Then he and I played together. He was still the cop and I was the little girl.
He was playing with small musician dolls and I brought out Squiggly Worms. He immediately asked to play w/me. I told him I was playing by myself and he walked away & ignored me. I prompted appropriate comments -- "I really like that game" and asked him about his dolls. He continued convers well w/prompts. DRO'd.
He was playing with a helicopter and I took a Playmobile set out and played w/kids on a playground. I was swinging and having a convers about school. He asked from where he was "What are you doing?" I told him I was playing and asked him about his toy. This lead to a really nice reciprocal conversation. He was patient and waited until I asked him to join me to touch the figures. DRO'd this control and a lot of spontaneous creativity (i.e., take boy to hospital b/c he broke his leg!, etc.)
He played with Trouble and I played with magnet hair man. He was more interested in his game than mine (my mistake), but he still accepted prompts and paid attn 1st time. He responded well to all my WHY ?s.
He was playing w/lacing cards and I played with dolls and schoolhouse. He immediately asked me what I was playing with. I told him that he can see what I was playing with and could say instead "I really like that game...what do you like about it?" He spontaneously volunteered stuff about what he was playing. DRO. Once he asked me something and I didn't answ -- scripted story about not answ. Also observ learning: I did some weird stuff when I was playing and asked him how it looked. Prompted him to say he wouldn't want to play w/me 'cause I looked weird.
He needed a T.O. Kept talking back and grabbing my toy. Just wasn't listening to social stories at all. Controlled himself after T.O. and long talk. DRO for that. I played with Maniac Mouse and he w/his dolls. I prompted appropo convers. Also did perspective-taking about grabbing my toy. After he behaved for a while, I let him play w/me.
P.N. - Good NATURAL reinforcer for gaining control!!! Great creativity and recovery -- this kind of stuff will go a long way!
He requested this drill! Used it as a natural reinforcer for waiting quietly. He read while I threaded. He did great job commenting on it but didn't want to play w/it so I moved on to bubbles. This was great but he grabbed it so then he couldn't play w/them. He said OK after a small outburst & he waited so nicely and quietly while reading his book he got to play w/the bubbles. His hands were occupied so no weird hand stuff -- DRO'd for this.
He asked me what I was doing and prompted me to ask him about his stuff at various points in the session. Lots of DRO and then I got the hint and would ask him at various pts about his activity. I colored while he painted. I drew a picture of a castle while he was reading "Beauty & the Beast". He was very interested in what I was drawing and asked lots of ?s. Then I asked if he wanted to paint it and he did. So painting was a natural reinforcer. I continued to color other pts of castle while he painted and DRO'd idea that when he's good, fun things happen.
He was doing Brain Quest. I took out Snackin' Safari. At first he didn't notice so I made comment about what he was doing. He then commented on my toy. I didn't have to ask him to join me -- he said he was finished with Brain Quest and came over to watch me. Then I asked him if he wanted to play and of course he accepted. Nice playing. Great behavior. DRO'd good sitting. After this was over he got a T.O. b/c he took a toy I told him not to and was banging the drawer shut. T.O. was short and he gained control quickly. DRO'd short T.O. b/c he listened.
I played w/Barney Matching (he was playing this prior to coming back) -- he really wanted it, and he played Clown Lotto. Prompted convers. then I asked him if he wanted to switch. He didn't know what this meant so I explained and we changed toys and continued drill.
He played with Clown puzzle and I took out stuff for science experiment. He was asking for it earlier. Prompted him to make comments about it. He came over and asked to play. I told him to put down his puzzle piece but he wouldn't. Control statements didn't work nor did listening Social Story. He tantrummed when I took the puzzle piece away -- announced a T.O. and after he got under control and was able to concentrate on the science experiment I DRO'd him for being good.
I tried to hit ball up and down w/paddle while he played Pie Face. He asked me ?s appropriately (w/o prompting about what I was doing and answered my ?s but didn't move when I said "look out!" and ball hit him on the head. I tried this repeatedly and then Jim used something a little harder (a plastic bottle) and he had more motivation to move and then got it.
He got to do Parallel Play as a natural reinforcer for doing a great job on #s and Letters drill. He picked Lincoln Logs to play with. Started out really nicely but did some hand stuff with logs. This prompted me to break what he was bldg b/c he didn't listen. He got angry and hit me. Megan and I left the room. He snapped back into shape really fast. We cont'd w/parallel play. Great job afterwards.
He played w/puzzle and I played w/doll house. He was working quietly. I prompted him w/convers about doll house. Needed scripting to look at me when he spoke to me. Looked at me so I wanted to be his friend and invited him to play with me. Natural reinforcer.
He put together a puzzle (all by himself...DRO!) and I listened to a tape and read a book (Crocodile something..?). He was interested in his puzzle but immed asked ?s about what I was doing. DRO. He said he wanted to play w/me as soon as he finished his puzzle. When he did he came right over and told me he was ready to play. Got to read Cat in the Hat (natural reinforcer) for not forgetting about me and putting puzzle together so nicely. Needed verbal prompts to glance at me while putting puzzle together and asking me ?s.
P.N. - Lay out a limited number of toys (3 or 4) in front of him and take the best one and offer him a choice of what's left. e.g., "I'll take the piano...what do YOU want?" He MUST choose from what's in front of him and then proceed as before.
Choice of Squiggly Worms, ball, chicken puppet, boy doll. I chose Squiggly Worms. He was able to play w/puppet and doll. I prompted comments about Squiggly Worms -- he wanted to choose this first. He was patient and played with his toys quietly so I asked him to play Squiggly Worms with me as natural reinforcer. For motor practice I had him pull back the lever on the apple -- he was turning it upside-down at first, doing it awkwardly. After lots of practice did it well. DRO.
Didn't exactly do the choice part. He was playing with Same/Diff cards -- I took out kitchen to set up and acted like I was frustrated b/c I couldn't put things together. He was great b/c he was giving me directions from a distance and he was getting frustrated b/c "I was not doing it right" - He finally came over and showed me how to do it. DRO'd this and asked him to help me build the kitchen. Nice job!!!
Put out Candyland, Barney puzzle, Memory Game and Lincoln Logs. I took Barney puzzle b/c he had been asking for it earlier. He picked Memory Game. Once this happened we proceeded as before. He was commenting on my puzzle. He really wanted to do it. Was saying when I was done if he can do it. I invited him over to help me. He commented that we were both working on something w/Barney. DRO'd his patience. Nice job w/puzzle afterwards. He was persistent even though he got frustrated at times.
[Playdate] was over. Amazing Parallel Play! They were ea working on a puzzle. I had [Playdate] comment a few times on [name]'s work, [Playdate] got stuck on a puzzle and asked [name] for help. He went over and explained how to match colors....he even DRO'd [Playdate] for getting it right! He said "Great job [other child]!" I DRO'd [name] for being a good teacher and looking at others while working.
I chose first and played with Teddy Bear Bingo. He played with Chinese Checkers. I was practicing putting out correct number of bears for card. I put out three bears for card that said four and asked him how I was doing. He said "Great!" without looking. Worked intensely on having him LOOK at what other person is doing. Commented on his work. DRO'd when he looked at me.
We had a choice of the light-up doll house, Barney Memory Game and puzzle. I chose the doll house and he did the puzzle. DRO'd for flexibility --- great parallel play but rigid when I wanted to help him. Told him he couldn't play w/my doll house then and he changed his tune. DRO for being flexible, attentive and talked about teamwork.
I put out three games (best was Fishin' Fun). He immediately came over all excited to play w/it. I stopped & said I'm picking this one & left the other two boring games for him to choose from. He asked to play w/me but I said "no, I want to play this by myself". I told him if he's good he can fish with me later. He was reluctant but accepted and seemed to be longing for the fishing game. I thus made it all the more tempting by exaggerating my responses while I played. He commented on my play a lot. I did the same for him but he wasn't too engaged with his choice (Barney Memory Game). I finally let him join me, reinforcing good patience.
He requested PlayDoh so this was a choice and I picked it of course. He chose blocks. We worked simultaneously. I made animals and he liked them. My animal got sick so he built a hospital for it. DRO - great job doing his thing and still paying attn to mine. This drill was N.R. [= Natural reinforcer] for manipulatives drill.
He was really on with this today. Throughout session, as he was playing he would engage me and question me about what I was doing. I laughed when I read [other ther's] Let's Play drill entry about Pinocchio and he asked what I was laughing about. DRO'd his attn to what I was doing. Then we played w/toys. I played w/dolls that he'd been playing with and he played with GAK. Needed prompt at beg to look at me when I asked ? but then did it w/o prompt. DRO & self-pride statements.
ALPHIE Jr. (the robot), blocks, a Barney puzzle. I of course chose the robot. He wanted puzzle & blocks...had to choose. I picked puzzle. I was getting things wrong w/robot and he yelled at me. After he tried to help me and I said no. DRO for being helpful & letting me figure it out for myself but when he yelled at me and told me he'd give me one more chance we had a long talk about it. He can't tell grown-ups or kids what to do or they won't be his friend, making rules, etc. He said he understood and when he went back to his puzzle and I got another one wrong, he said nicely "Try harder to get it right"!!! DRO for much more appropro response. Some subtle jaw jutting kept him from getting robot sooner. I told him this and he stopped. DRO'd for control.
P.N. - Set up PLAY STATIONS / CENTERS / AREAS Each area contains a different activity....One of them should be MOLDABLES.
Set up two play stations. One with Play-Doh and one with Silly Putty. Different tools (but similar in purpose) at ea area. He used Play-Doh (I, Silly Putty). He grabbed pizza cutter from my station. I told him he can only use things at his own station. His observational learning was great. He followed what I was doing but stayed in his own space. DRO'd his questions/comments about my/his work. Modeled appropriate conversation. He really enjoyed this and did nice job. Sat very nicely with no extraneous speech. DRO
He did well here. Set up GAK and Floam stations w/cookie cutters (I had the GAK and the good cookie cutters). He stayed where he was and modeled me -- made diff shapes and had appropro convers. DRO. Asked to borrow my dolphin cutter. Told him "later". He used his. DRO'd flexibility. Asked him if he wanted to use the dolphin. He wasn't listening so I put it away. Wanted me to ask him again. I said maybe next time he won't miss out.
Play stations with Play-Doh and Floam. Great job. Beautiful observ learning and great answering. Still needed occasional prompting for him to say things to me. DRO'd nice job.
Used GAK and Play-Doh. He chose GAK. I suggested he make donuts since he wanted to use tea cups beforehand. Said we can have donuts and tea after he does a great job making donuts. Worked nicely. No faces, only a little singing but it didn't interfere with work. Answered questions nicely when I asked. He also commented on pretzels I made. Good looking and paying attn. DRO'd.
Play stations with GAK and Play-Doh. I used GAK and cookie monster mold. He got to use these when he finished w/his Play-Doh and Bert mold. Talked appropriately. I asked questions about his favorite things and to tell me about various things. We made stuff for ea other. Then played w/our figures. He was very well-behaved. Once he babbled so I asked him who his favorite character on Ses St was and he stopped -- then I was able to later DRO no babbling.
Set up GAK and Play-Doh. I used GAK; he: Play-Doh b/c last time w/ me it was v.v. He seemed very bored and didn't want to do drill. He started to argue about wanting to use GAK. Didn't give it to him b/c he was stuck on it. Redirected by trying to start next drill: Manipulatives. Talked about what we made yesterday (carousel, etc.) He forgot about GAK. Megan brought up the "boy who cried wolf". I asked him to sit down and be calm when he was out of control. Said "I bet you can't and I doubt you could do it." He sat down. Big DRO and explained what "doubt" meant. That's how we got into the "boy who cried wolf". DRO'd quietness and listening.
Play stations with Moldables. Disaster.
P.N. - NO MOLDABLES IN PLAY STATIONS FOR A WHILE. Continue doing play stations though.
My play station was Lego wheel toys; his was puzzle. He was ok for a bit but then said he couldn't do anymore of puzzle (he did two pieces) and tried to take my stuff. Told him to leave it alone and that I was playing w/it & until we finished (me building railroad and him doing puzzle) we couldn't switch. He still didn't work on puzzle so I got "bored" and put it away. He flipped out and I tried to redirect him -- Jim helped by talking to him about his sandwich in the living room.
Set up picnic basket and blocks. He picked picnic. Didn't comment on my play unless I made statements like "oh no! it fell!, etc... He laid out his picnic nicely but did a few weird clucking noises with the food. Tried to redirect by starting up a conversation or asking him to give me blocks I "couldn't reach". Worked a little but he went back to it. Before we started drill told him to work quietly at the end. Told him he did a nice job b/c he was working quietly (not singing). Lots of DRO.
Set up play stations at table. Blocks at one and Legos at the other. He chose blocks. Made a boardwalk w/people (after he tried to play w/my toys); I made a house. He was interested in my work and engaged in appropro convers but started to play w/blocks in ritualistic/ stuck way. I ended play. It was only about five minutes (I think he has to up his endurance w/this). Big prob putting blocks away. Wanted to bury yellow blocks. Very rigid about this but overcorrection worked eventually. By the end he was singing while putting blocks away but wasn't burying them so I let it go.
Coloring at one play station w/workbook..painting at other. He chose workbook. Terrible. Totally ignored my questions. Didn't ask anything about what I was doing even w/prompts and was putting crayons around neck and rubbing them on face. Clicking them together so I just got up and told him I didn't want to play around him b/c he was ignoring me. Got upset. I said (neutrally) that maybe next time he'll pay attn to me and we can play longer.
Two coloring stations - He talked about what he was making w/my modeling. e.g., I said I'm going to make a snowman...he said I'm gonna make a house. Needed prompts to comment on my work. Did nice job and then cleaned up play station -- DRO.
Nice job. He took Legos; I took blocks. I decided to build a space shuttle and he was tempted so he did the same. Told him we'd have a contest to see who does the best one. He did a nice job building, watched me a lot and then developed his own shuttle. DRO'd independence and creativity. He traveled to moon as well and then I took him for a ride to Mars and back to Earth. He wanted to be Drove off in [place]!
Set up blocks and some toys (miniature doll pieces). Excellent listening & commenting. Lots of DRO for quietness (no singing) when he played. He engaged in some nice conversational responses w/the dolls and helped put toys and blocks away nicely. Lots of DRO. Really nice job.
One Play-Doh and one Legos station. He picked Play-Doh. Was focused on his work and needed modeling to ask me about my work. Cleaned up stations together. He had hard time putting tools for Play-Doh back in basket. Started taking pieces out. I modeled putting them away quickly and redirected him and he them put his things away. DRO.
P.N. - Work on his initiations. Get him to invite you over and/or invite him over.
Set up coloring / cutting stations. I picked coloring; he got cutting. I had a couple of buildings drawn together that he had to cut out. He did pretty well. Gave him some reminders about cutting outside the line. Improved as he went on. DRO'd looking at his work and trying hard to stay on line. Didn't invite me over even though I asked him to. Are we supposed to set up moldables or not? I forgot what we were told.
P.N. - No on moldables -- other art skills ok though.
Two diff Lego stations. I built a space car and he built "bricks". I tried to prompt him to make the bricks into something (a landing pad, a house, etc.), but he kept saying "bricks". His attention to my task was poor so I told him I didn't want to play w/him anymore b/c he didn't pay attn to me and he wasn't building anything fun. He got upset and we talked about what kids like to play w/ and then I redirected him.
P.N. - He's perseverating on "bricks" w/Legos which is only ok if the bricks are USED for a concrete (no pun intended) object.
I used Barney Play-Doh set and he did dot-to-dot work. Wanted Barney but was fine about me using it. DRO. Attn was bad so I put away my stuff. He wanted to see what I made when it was already too late. Said next time he'll pay attn so he won't miss out.
Watched me play w/castle silently. Didn't interrupt but commented on what I should do with figures once in a while. I asked him what he was playing with (Barbie foods & refrig set). He asked me if I wanted tea so I took that as an invitation to play and DRO'd it. Played nicely until the end when he had to put toys away -- he put some stuff in his mouth and started spitting them out into the bag. Made him do it again and again until he did it halfway decently. Told him that in school a teacher would be angry about this & he would spread germs that way. This got his attn and he talked about other kids getting germs. DRO'd perspective-taking & better putting away.
Coloring book and Legos. He built a toy chest. Lots of DRO and I colored in a picture of Snow White. He did a good job and kept up nice conversation. At end I needed to use overcorrection and No equivs when putting stuff away and then he started putting Lego pieces on my arm. I used No equiv and he hit my arm (said he only pinched it) and got a t.o.
Puzzle station and drawing and coloring. Had him take puzzle station. Worked on Beauty & the Beast. He found it challenging and frustrating at the same time b/c it wasn't as easy as the bigger puzzles. Our conversation was very good. Focused on what we liked about what we were doing. He talked about Beauty & the Beast movie. Commented on my drawing of "Belle". DRO. Asked for help when he couldn't get some pcs together. Lots of DRO. Put puzzle away nicely. More DRO.
I'm such a masochist. Set up glue station. He started picking so I followed procedure from glue drill. Talked about what was more important, making a vehicle for the king, which we discussed earlier, or picking. He agreed that the vehicle was more important. After he was able to glue two sticks together, I let him have break. Engaging him in conversation was difficult, but no equiv, no equiv, prompt worked. Really liked what I made.
Game station and Barbie in pool. I had Snackin' Safari. He had Barbie. Good conversation b/c he really wanted game he asked to play (but I thought it was too soon). I acted like a kid and said not until I'm done. Meanwhile, he cont'd with Barbie. After a few minutes I gave him Safari game and said I was done (I wanted to see if he'd call me over to play). He did after he was done. DRO'd.
He colored with Snow White book. I read Mickey Mouse's Surprise Birthday Party. He was immediately interested in this. Regardless, he colored two pictures--DRO'd--so he got to play with Mickey book. Needed no equivs a couple of times b/c of latent responding -- when I was coloring I asked him to read quietly b/c I was having trouble concentrating. He did! DRO'd for being courteous.
Legos station and one "free" drawing station. He picked the drawing station and I did Legos. He started by saying we would switch but I redirected him. At end when I announced clean up, he did with no problem. DRO. I made an airplane and he drew a tricycle with no prob. Convers was good. Need no equivs at beg to answ but then answered well. DRO'd.
[At this point, at the end of Parallel Play notes, there are directions to look at the NEW cover sheet (below). Though another child may never have to follow up with something like this because their play skills aren't as idiosyncratic, many children will have had to do the above for a much longer time. We're sure the following came at a time when our son needed it and all kids being different.... Don't even know if this is a drill that our consultant would have done with another kid, etc. though the skill does seem to be an important prerequisite for "appropriate" cooperative play. Our "therapists' notes" follow the cover drill sheet below.]

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The notes are by the parents, Megan and Jim Sumlin (pseudonyms), who feel strongly that this information should be freely available to all who might benefit from it. They ask only that these notes belong in the public domain, and are not to be claimed or copyrighted by any person who is or will in the future be seeking monetary gain for wide distribution of same. If this information has proved useful, click here to download their information package. You will need the Winzip program to decompress the files.

This is a selection of notes from over two years of behavioral intervention sessions with a young child who ultimately recovered completely from Autism.