EXAMPLE OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR
APPROPRIATE PLAY WITH OTHERS
This is a selection of notes from over two years
of behavioral intervention sessions with a young child who ultimately
recovered completely from Autism.
It includes many curricula ("drill sheets"), therapists'
notes, and parents' notes, covering (in part) his development from
no pretend play skills all the way to fully independent, spontaneous,
The notes are by the parents, Megan and Jim Sumlin (pseudonyms),
who feel strongly that this information should be freely available
to all who might benefit from it. They ask only that these drills
belong in the public domain, and are not to be claimed or copywritten
by any person who is or will in the future be seeking monetary gain
for wide distribution of same. Feel free to re-distribute this document,
but please include this entire preface.
These notes are just one part of a comprehensive program guided
by a behavior analyst; there were other parts of the total program,
not included here, that were necessary to the child's development
and eventual recovery. They are specific to one individual child.
Use them as a resource to help you plan your child or student's
curriculum. What works for one child will not work for all. While
much of the material here addresses problems common to many or most
children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, you will want to select
carefully based on individual needs, learning style, and personality.
A few notes on terminology:
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
This is the instruction given to the child.
This is the response expected or desired from
This is one specific technique for presenting
the "Discriminative Stimulus," then prompting (providing
the "R") if the child responds incorrectly.
This is a brief removal of all reinforcement,
where the child must sit and do nothing. This is meant to reduce
certain unwanted behaviors but it has no moral or emotional overtones;
it is not a punishment for "being bad."
This is a reward for a correct response, which
may be anything the child loves: a bit of chocolate, a piggy-back
ride, an enthusiastic "You're so great!" Proper reinforcement
is the key to learning.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
Much more common in these notes is Differential
Reinforcement of Other Behavior. In addition to reinforcement for
getting the right answer, the child was frequently praised for unprompted
appropriate behaviors (in place of undesirable, stereotypical behaviors).
For example, when playing with dolls, the therapist may say, "I'm
glad you're not banging the characters together," or as the
notes say in many places, "DRO'd flexibility"--unprompted
spontaneity. Remembering to "catch 'em being good" takes
a lot of practice, but it is essential to the development of a truly
natural repertoire of age-appropriate skills.
USING APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS FOR APPROPRIATE PLAY
This drill is to develop appropriate play with
other, once he is narrating well during play. There is no need to
narrate anymore. He usually begins stimming in play so this drill
will address that.
1. Use about six animals and play with him.
2. Do not allow him to place these animals in a herd.
3. Let the stim begin then shut the drill down briefly, debrief
and resume drill
4. Stay in character and gently require this of him.
• Do not shut the drill for this, our main focus is the stims...
we'll get this later.
• Gently No (equivalent) and de-brief
5. Idiosyncratic play - Gently require as above.
6. Don't let him get distracted by concrete objects and events around
De-brief if he goes off task because he hears his brother or a TV
in another room.
If he changes the grass that the cow is eating back into a table
top, re-direct him back into play
e.g., "The only thing you should think about is what you're
7. Leave the toys around when you're done, to give him a chance
to get into solitary play.
Therapist & Parent Notes (P.N.)
With [playdate]. Played "Beauty & the
Beast" w/figures. Great job. He looked at me a couple of times
as he was starting to do something strange. DRO'd this with reference
to controlling himself & using grown-ups to help him do this.
Followed [playdate] beautifully. He tried to go o/o character and
told [playdate]'s character that the glasses were for [playdate's
actual name] and she said "There's NO [her name] here!"
I used this to talk about the meaning of "pretend". Throughout
remainder of session he needed lots of intervention during solitary
play. DRO'd appropo play intermittently. Stopped play that had grunting
& strange banging together of animals. He handled the debriefing
well & I was able to get out of the way quickly & let his
resume. Only needed stop & de-brief once for herding.
We played with "Toy Story" figurines (3) and animals (3).
"TS" figs stayed in character & animals as well. Woody
([name]) intro'd Buzz to all the characters reminding him all the
while that animals couldn't talk. This allowed him to stay in character
beautifully. When he played on his own he needed intervention. "Woody"
intervened & reminded him to be nice to them & to play nicely
6 animals. Narration great. Needed T.O. Closed activity a couple
of times due to strange mouth stuff (e.g., hoofs in mouths of other
animals, etc.). Followed my narration & lead well. I often hung
back & followed his lead & he was able to maintain action
well. Needed prompt to not involve himself in play. During Solitary
play he needed lots of intervention for strange holding, flying,
noises, biting, but on the bright side, he was able to get a few
minutes of appropriate play in first.
Put out 6 animals. He used about 4. Nice job staying in character.
Easily redirected when he wanted to use "Simba". Told
him to try some new animals. DRO'd flexibility. On his own I let
whatever seemed like a stim -- i.e., frog on the horse tail -- play
out. He stopped himself & moved on to another constructive conversation
i.e., - frog: I have to get to the lake....I'm dry. At the end I
praised him for great play. Didn't notice any weird things. Narration
6 animals - He didn't stim at all when we played together. He had
some trouble staying in character at times but did so w/gentle reminders.
When he played on his own he needed some intervention but I saw
Woody, Buzz & 4 animals -- Coop Play - Still some strange play,
even when with me. Some putting things in animals mouth in stimmy
way. Also strange hand stuff with Woody doll. Closed down drill
& debriefed. Also did this for out of character. Independent
Play is still peppered with stimmy stuff. He keeps putting objects
on himself. Has hard time keeping himself out of play. DRO when
he stopped himself from doing something strange. Using looking at
grownup to help control himself. Looking at sides of toys &
squinting at them. Shut down & debriefed.
P.N. - Watch for putting things in animals' mouths. Shut down drill
& debrief for this.
Ind Play - Squinting & looking at sides of toys like w/[ther].
Shut down & debriefed. No putting things in animals' mouths
but moving dolls strangely & calling it dancing. I joined him
& if he cont'd I shut down & debriefed. Coop - we played
with two Woody dolls (one was Woody's brother who he named "Jode"),
Rex and three animals. He did great job. Played appropriately the
whole time. DRO'd his staying in character throughout.
Question - Does this drill always have to involve animals? I used
little figurines today. He was fine, staying in appropo character.
Teacher and a boy & girl. We took turns. We did a school throughout
entire narration -- really nice -- no weird behaviors w/his play.
DRO & praise.
P.N. - We need to have animals 90% of the time since he stims on
animals more than on people dolls & because there always seem
to be 6-8 animals out at school and he always gravitates towards
them. We need to desensitize him to this. Watch for EYEING objects
please. It's up! Thanks.
6 animals. He used 1-2 at a time. Stayed in char beautifully with
no strange looking. DRO. Needed activity shut down & debriefing
for stimming with animals on his toes. Directed play away from his
body. Nice job. Indep play is going for much longer before he needs
P.N. -- Great...Please note (as above) whether the independent play
is lasting longer.
Lots of moving -- had six animals out. Had to shut down activity
& debrief a few times b/c he was stuck on making the giraffe
fly. Shutting down & restarting worked ok. He didn't really
do any solitary play today.
6 animals out -- Had to intervene a couple times when he did Solitary
Play b/c tiger was turning into human climbing on bed & pillows
as well as making weird noises. Intervention & debriefing worked
to get him back in animal role. Had some grimaces throughout play
-- while he made noises. Tried to reference this to mean tone &
He needed lots of redirection during Solitary Play b/c of weird
noises & smashing animals together. Doesn't last long b/c he
does this. During Coop Play he didn't do this but wasn't staying
in character. Didn't respond to gentle redirection. DRO for not
squinting/eye stuff w/animals.
P.N. - Please start listing approx. how long he engages in "good"
solitary play before a meltdown. We need to begin DROing "playing
nice" for longer periods of time -- this has to be shaped similar
to the way we used to time "being good for a long time"
and shaping -- Notes please.
Set up 6-7 animals on table. Started out playing w/him. He had choice
of which 2 animals he could be. Chose a big & little rhino.
had trouble handling them 1 at a time. Kept holding both together
in one hand, always moving. Had to stop a couple of times &
start again b/c he would keep them on the table. Worked a bit. He
was good at monitoring my face for reactions to his play! DRO'd
that. Solitary Play - Interrupted about 3x -- less than one min
b/c he babbled & switched the characters of animals. After third
time he was able to sustain decent play for about 1 1/2 minutes.
Had a bit of a nasty tone when I interrupted. Used his No-No-Point
finger to make excuses about what he was playing. Labeled this nasty.
P.N. - All read previous page re: solitary play & shaping. We're
at 1 1/2 minutes.
SOLITARY PLAY RULES --
1) Only 1 toy allowed in each hand
2) No toy touching
No clicking together
No rubbing together
No banging together
3) No stuffing toys into each other [many of our animals were large
4) No Babbling/Word Salad
Played with dinosaur game pieces. Needed prompting for holding 1
toy in ea hand, banging when playing w/me. Stayed in char well.
Played w/Toy Story chars throughout session independently. Used
"personal space" as a way to get him to keep chars away
from ea other & not click/bang, etc. DRO'd space betwn chars.
No babbling/word salad - DRO. Able to play for approx 1 1/2 min
P.N. - As a DRO be sure to tell him he was able to play a little
longer w/o your help.
Played with Toy Story chars, then animals & trains. He was able
to play for 2 min w/o intervention. I DRO'd this & referred
to the face that he was able to play longer & control himself.
Still needed personal space reminders.
Played w/animals. While I was w/him nice attending & appropo
animal play -- a couple of glances reminded him to play nicely.
Great job. Solitary Play - lasted about two minutes (not fully)
before he "babbled" a bit. He caught himself & looked
at me. DRO'd his gaining control right away & playing longer
than last time. Pretty good.
We played w/two Toy Story char & 6 animals. He did wonderful
job. Never have seen him better. W/Solitary Play he played nearly
three minutes w/one toy in ea hand w/no clicking/touching, etc.,
after he initially did w/toy story char. I labeled it "destructive
play" (like the Joy Berry book "Being Destructive").
This seemed to hit home. It was incredible. Tons of praise for playing
so beautifully. Related it to school. Said sometimes he plays destructively
in school but he won't do it anymore (yeah right... we can only
hope). Lots of DRO for letting me help him be good.
Played with 6 dinosaurs. He was using storyline of "land before
time". Discussed how he can take ideas from movies and change
them and think about other things that may have happened. We did
one "act" together where dinosaur that didn't share decided
to share instead. DRO play that wasn't destructive Only made about
2 min solitary b/c of clicking animals together. Debriefed. One
instance of looking at side of obj. Closed down & debriefed.
DRO appropo play.
He was clicking & tapping after about 3 min of playing. Labeled
destructive & he stopped. DRO. When he continued at various
times during session I closed down & debriefed.
Played ok for about 2 1/2 minutes then said something incoherent.
I labeled it a babble after he refused to tell me what he'd just
said. He was upset ... said I was "in the water". Told
him you should have said that while you played & when I asked
you. Debriefed & started again. Did better job. About 2 good
minutes. Kept looking at me. Labeled this as good self-monitoring
(adults helping him).
Really nice today - I played w/him for a good 5 min. Stayed in character,
followed my lead and then directed his own play a lot. Did well
b/c he involved my animals. Solitary Play was also good -- about
2 minutes before he put characters together (it wasn't that bad).
Nice looking up for conformation of good vs. not good play.
Played nicely on his own for nearly 3 min. (DRO) before toys touched,
then I joined him. He had some probs looking at me & not touching
doll strangely. N/C stopped this & reminders to act like he
does in school. DRO when he played well.
Fine job. Used puppets today. He had some nice narrations w/butterfly
and frog. DRO'd absence of "babbling" w/o me telling him.
He had some mouth clicking. Challenged him to remember not to do
it; he remembered two times -- DRO for not forgetting. Sitting was
Played 6 figures (3 animals). His play is getting much better. Solitary
Play continued for over 3 minutes w/o needing intervention. I DRO'd
before he needed intervention. Really nice. He caught himself &
looked at me when he babbled. Praised his catching himself &
said I bet next time he'll be able to catch himself before he says
Used 3 trains & 6 animals. At first didn't want to give him
trains but he asked nicely (and longingly) for them so I let him
use them. Still had to handle only two items. Coop Play was very
good. Excellent conversation & sitting ...DRO. On his own (needed
some persuasion for Solitary Play) he did ok for about 2 1/2 min
before he began crashing trains -- not too much. I allowed this
to continue to see what would happen. He saw me looking & stopped.
DRO'd him for self-monitoring. Had to interrupt play when he kept
singing [-----] lyrics very strangely and made faces and said "Do
you expect to find me...." He knew why I took toys away.
6 animals out together - this was great. Excellent conversation.
Worked off my lead & direction. Played at the table. Very flexible.
Really creative & animal appropriate behavior on his own. Pretty
nice job. Used a quiet voice betwn animals & had nice theme
running throughout his story - e.g., dark forest (scared). DRO'd
nice sitting & self-monitoring. Played solitarily for about
4 minutes. Great job! Discussed school & being grown up.
Played w/Toy Story chars & dinosaurs. At beg of session there
was a lot of clicking together. I targeted this heavily & his
Solitary Play kept improving. Up to almost 5 minutes indep. DRO.
Coop play is much better; much less stimming. Really able to follow
another's lead & stay in char.
Excellent Coop play. However Solitary Play was hard b/c he didn't
want to do it. He was "stuck" on playing w/me. Kept asking
"please play w/me..." etc. Was doing very nice so I cont'd
as long as I could. Later in the session he picked up some puppets
(dogs, lion, etc.) & played on his own. No babbling. Very nice
quiet play for over 4 minutes. Lots of DRO> I observed from a
distance and tried to only encourage self-monitoring by looking
for eye-contact if he felt he was going towards an inappropriate
[Brother] joined us at the beg. [Name] was totally in control. Tons
of DRO for no touching & playing nicely. Ref'd to school. Great
Coop Play even with [brother] drifting in & out of play. Lots
of praise. Indep Play was shaky at first. Needed interv. for space
& clicking approx every 2 min. Debriefed. Able to eventually
get up to 5 min with intermittent reinf. Nice job. No noises or
faces for the most part. He was really in amazing control.
Coop Play needed a little debriefing b/c he kept getting into human
characters & assigning the animals these characteristics. needed
about 2-3 interruptions before he remained in animal character.
Lots of trouble getting him to to Indep Play! Wouldn't do it...asked
to play w/me. Tried to make this a positive experience by saying
thanks for asking but I can't. He took it the wrong way, got bossy
& upset, wouldn't do indep play at all. Talked about listening
Coop Play only - He was been very creative w/play, even though animals
aren't always being just animals. Megan/Jim are going to ask [consultant]
to move this drill along so that he can assign other characteristics
to animals after all (we ARE making them talk!) His play seems to
be very age appropriate & normal; we may be discouraging him
b/c we keep telling him to stay in character (not much to do w/being
just a pig, cow, calf, etc....)
P.N. - Let's loosen up a little & let the animals stray o/o
character (as long as it's not psychotic!). Let his creativity w/play
flow more. Just don't allow him to bring HIMSELF in as a character.
Played with trucks. Worked on appropriate truck play, construction,
etc., instead of his personification of the trucks where they fight.
(I know we're supposed to loosen up but it looked sorta weird. I
just wanted to give him an alternative script). Talked about how
other kids in school play, modeling. Play was much better. No noises
or faces for the most part. Some saliva swishing but he quickly
stopped. 7 minutes without an intervention!
P.N. - Loosen up with animals BUT trucks, planes (all vehicles),
etc., should NOT ACT as people. All read [ther notes/date above].
This is correct way.
Used animals. I tried to be pretty flexible about which animals
he wanted to be. Very hard time listening to me first time. Was
stuck on wolves in the forest (even though we had no wolf out);
tried to quickly incorporate his wolf fantasy into the play and
move on. Didn't work too well. Stopped activity a few times to debrief
about switching attn. & not getting stuck -- improved slightly.
With Solitary Play he cont'd the same theme. Had animals on top
of ea other too much and started to get carried away. Stopped activity
and debriefed on what he did wrong. He became a bit argumentative
-- had mad face, etc. Took away the animals as aversive.
He was great w/Coop Play until he started his wolf theme as w/ [above
ther]. He made Buzz Lightyear a wolf. Debriefed but he continued
so I took animals away. Took them out again later & he didn't
bring up the wolf thing. Lots of DRO for not getting stuck.
Took out various animals. [Brother] joined us too. He was rabbit.
Did pretty good job asking ?s Used him as model. He liked what [brother]
was saying. Went along w/him for while but of course the forever
famous good wolf Balto reared his ugly head in! Tried to keep the
focus on [brother]'s conversation. When he kept on with wolf theme,
stopped activity, debriefed & went back. Did it once more despite
my firmness. Remaining neutral I stopped the drill.
Small trucks - needed debriefing about them talking, then DRO'd
using them as vehicles WITH DRIVERS OPERATING THEM. Intermittently
DRO'd theme of truck clearing snow. Played for 15 min. w/o any intervention.
Discussed with lots of praise. Animals - played for 7/8 minutes
independently -- no wolf discussion/theme.
He played appropriately for only about 2 min at a time [this ther
was around the least & wasn't in good spirits throughout these
months. He usually gave her the most trouble]. Lots of noises noises
& rolling on floor. I intervened. Play together was fantastic.
Lots of DRO. No wolf stuff.
Did this for quite a while using dinosaurs & then water animals.
Aggression was a theme. He did some Solitary Play for about 3 min
and then started having "sharks" eat every other animal.
This lasted about 2 min before I intervened. Discussed how once
the shark eats the animal (alligator), that's it. Shark should move
on to do something else, etc. Started Solitary Play again &
looked up to me when he was eating alligator. He put alligator down
& moved on to other play. Huge praise for self-control. Told
him looking at me helped him to remember, etc. Nice play lasted
for approx. 10 min w/continuous referencing to me.
He still has some trouble thinking up story lines. Able to do 3
min with his own material. I started him on a new story line &
he was able to do 4 1/2 min indep. Coop Play is great, although
he needed some prompting/close down play to remember to keep figures
still & not cover their faces w/his hands.
P.N. - It's OK to give him a new story line and BACK OFF as above.
Nice Coop Play -- got stuck w/wanting Woody to fly even when I changed
story line & direction stopped & discussed. Did much better
when we went back. Praise & DRO. Behavior was great. Solitary
Play - very nice for about 4 min before he had Woody flying a bit
too wildly on a plane. He looked at me & got into control. Tried
to divert his behavior by asking him what Woody is about to do,
etc., then he cont'd (a little bit more calmly) to play for another
His Coop Play was great. He didn't stim & was flexible w/story
& play themes. Solitary Play wasn't as good -- needed to be
shut down/debriefed. Problem with clicking toys together. After
I joined him & backed off he had about 3 great min of Solitary
Great job w/Coop Play - very flexible & had some great themes.
Worked on this for about 15 min before he did Solitary. No weird
behaviors. Great play continued great themes and calm, appropo play
for about 7 min. Lots of praise. DRO'd for playing appropriately.
Had had trouble w/space between figures during Solitary. Only able
to do 4 min w/intermittent DRO. Also stimmed during Coop. Some touching/clicking
- stopped & debriefed. DRO'd appropriate participation.
Sorry did this (I wasn't assigned to but I thought I saw a [initial]
next to it). Anyway, he was able to sustain Solitary Play for about
5 min w/o clicking toys. DRO for good play before that. Coop was
wonderful. Lots of DRO for this.
Great job. Played w/bugs & animals. Very good Solitary. Didn't
mush animals together, click, etc. Nice use of words & good
themes w/animals. Coop Play was just as good. Very flexible w/my
P.N. - Don't forget to include how long he was good for.
Played w/dinos & animals. Kept appropriate space betwn animals.
DRO. Needed to be stopped for word salad. About 4-5 minutes independently.
Coop Play is good. Only problem is holding animals. Too much touching
& not holding still. Stopped & debriefed.
Used animals. Very nice Coop Play. Needed a little reminder to hold
still. Didn't want to do Solitary Play. Made up a rule about the
sign on T.V. (No Toys) to not playing with animals. Tried to explain
that this was different b/c we were practicing good play. Lasted
2 min before he got stuck on forests & wolves. Stopped &
debriefed. Played another min before he clicked animals & cont'd
w/the same theme.
He played well on his own for 5 min. He didn't know I was watching
him. Had to intervene when he clicked toys together. Coop Play was
great until he held 2 animals in one hand. Stopped & debriefed.
First had him do Solitary. He got carried away banging gorilla on
table. [Brother] was around & did the same. Debriefed him about
inappropriate modeling. "See what he did b/c you were a poor
example?" I then played only w/[brother] and he had to watch.
He had difficulty doing this; wouldn't listen the first time. Got
upset (seemed jealous of [brother]!). Grabbed animals, started to
cry, etc. Labeled his emotions. He denied & didn't want anyone
to say what he was feeling. Calmed down a little later & acknowledged
feelings! Coop Play a little better. Later on stuck on which animals
I should use, etc. Had to remind him to be more flexible. Sitting
needed reminder as well as looking.
He had hard time with Solitary Play - "word salad" again.
Only 3 min before I had to intervene. DRO'd appropo play intermittently.
Coop play was great. We played for 10 min & I stopped &
ended on a good note. DRO. Told him it was so much fun to play w/him.
Ref to school.
Coop Play - Nice job. Worked on the floor, used props - e.g., blue
cloth for ocean, bucket turned over for mountain. Did mini scenes
involving turn-taking. Used much more action, less emphasis on language.
Had trouble making animals interact (The ones he held) kept wanting
to talk to my animals. I modeled a lot for him and then told him
animals in ocean can't hear the land animals (there he was forced
to have a convers w/his own animals). Good job. Needs practice.
About 7 min. Solitary play only 2 1/2 min on his own. Started to
babble & make spitting/chucking noises. All weird. Shut down
& debriefed. Compared it to school.
Coop Play was good. No prob w/turn-taking. Nice creativity. Worked
heavily on holding animals still. At beg I was shutting down Coop
Play & debriefing every 30 sec or so, then heavy DRO for holding
it still. Indep Play - not bad. I gave him some lead-ins & had
him pick some props (not airplane). Lasted about 4 1/2 min. No strange
P.N. Cooperative Play: Fade out sooner; more give & take in
your "scenes". Solitary Play: - Use imaginative props
(community locations...bowl as pond, blocks, etc.) to increase d-----
[???] - Keep verbal interactions to a minimum - More actions - use
props to elicit action. - Shoot for 3-5 min consistently & shape
toward 7-10 min. - Can add story lines to increase d ------
For both he must use his "real" voice.
Turn-taking good in Coop Play scenes. Set up situations w/props
for Solitary (e.g., airport, hospital w/blocks, hospital beds, carpet
as runways). He played nicely for 3 min, then went to see if his
lunch was ready. Needed one reminder to use his "real voice".
Set up storylines in ea. e.g., plane crash, take people to the hospital.
During Coop Play needed only one shutdown & debrief to keep
I used pond we drew as a prop. Worked nicely. He was much less fidgety
w/animals. A few prompts to use his own voice. Coop Play was pretty
good. Used lots of action. Solitary Play was much better too! Less
movement w/animals today. Lasted 2-3 minutes before he "babbled"
something -- debriefed -- went back to it and shaped for longer
play using more coherent actions & language.
Coop Play - first. Nice play, lasted about 6 min & then left
him to do Solitary Play. He didn't want to at first. I just told
him he needs to do it on his own for a while. He began - did a nice
job - gave me constant glances as if to see if he was doing his
play well. If he was working well I nodded w/approval or a smile.
He cont'd nicely for a solid 5 min. and then he broke down a bit
with babbling....went on a bit too long. Interrupted him & debriefed
about overall play. Used multiple props -- mat for desert and the
pond we drew last time.
Wanted to use drawn pond -- seemed a bit stuck. I took out Dino
checkers and made them tar pits and mixed animals w/ Disney &
Ses St figurines. He had a hard time. Played well cooperatively
for about 5 min. Solitary Play about 2 1/2 - 3 and then lots of
foot stuff. Shut down & debriefed.
Coop Play - 5 min. Very nice. We used figurines from doll house
he hasn't seen for long time and animals. Big treat for him. Solitary
Play - 6 min. Very nice job. No babbling. Was upset when I finally
said we have to move on -- it was getting late. Told him we may
do it again another time.
Coop Play - Stuck on Tyran Rex. Shut down & debriefed. Went
back to playing & DRO'd getting in control & focusing on
what my chars. were saying. Still needed intervention to hold chars.
still. About 8 min. Coop Play. Solitary Play - needed lots of prompts
for REAL voice. Redirection from chars. eating ea. other. Only about
3 min. solitary.
Coop - 10 min. Needed shutdown 3x in beginning b/c he kept moving
them too much (flying, jumping, etc.). Debriefed & began again.
Used props (basket paper mache & box for environment setup -
i.e., sand cave, etc.) Did some "wandering" w/convers
and needed help in staying on subject. Solitary Play - 3-5 min.
Some refusal at first - wanted me to play. He decided to "sink"
all the animals in the sand and then use dinosaurs. I thought he
was creative so let him go on. Needed a few prompts to only have
one animal in ea hand. Play was non-aggressive (DRO). Conversation
script wasn't clear. Themes kept jumping around from brother-sister
animals being afraid to "let's have a mean saber-toothed lion
or a shark," etc....
P.N. - To Review Your notes should reflect these elements: COOPERATIVE
- Characters go places & do things - Minimal dialogue - Give
& take w/actions (almost turn-taking/conversational) SOLITARY
- More Material/Props - Story Lines as Props Your notes should reflect
Coop - 12 min. Used props all over the place. Much better today
at going places & doing things. Props definitely helped as well
as setting him up with a situation or "scene" - i.e.,
volcano about to explode, baby dinosaur is stuck at foot of mtn.
He worked well with this. Solitary - 7 min. Again, props helped.
I faded myself out of coop play and he cont'd w/themes already in
progress. Needed verbal prompts not to have more than one animal
in ea hand & they had to stay grounded (too much waving in air).
Also needed prompt to leave animals in appropriate character --
he made a shark fly. Debriefed about it, cont'd nicely afterwards.
Coop Play - Used chair as volcano plus Lego house. Prompted turn-taking
w/actions [arrow drawn by us between the word "volcano"
here and the one that's in last entry w/another therapist just to
alert them that they may not have read last entry well and in any
case the same thing shouldn't be done two sessions in a row w/our
son who tended to perseverate]. Solitary - Used these materials
& rug for beach. Gave story lines. He needed prompts continuously
and shut down/debrief for toy banging & noises. 2 to 2 1/2 min
Coop - 10 min. Needed many prompts to "go places and do actions."
Very hard for him NOT to start some sort of convers. I tried to
keep it strictly ACTION packed using verbal prompts: "Come
on, let's go to the meadow...," etc. Used props all over. Solitary
- Just getting him to do it took 5 min - lots of debriefing about
listening to adults. Tried to make it appealing to him. He "messed"
up props (i.e., a barn we made for farm animals). Worked patiently
w/him & got him to build his own version. I fed him story lines
and got him interested. Played about 3-4 min before intervening
about using "real voice." DRO'd when he played nicely.
Solitary - Started this first on his own. He actually told me "You
can play with me if you want, but if you don't want to, it's ok."
!!! (Cute, sweet and manipulative.) Huge praise and DRO for not
insisting on having me play w/him (usually the case). He set up
his own prompts - ocean, land, etc. Played for a solid 15 min. I
had no reason to interrupt him. Used animals (jungle) & a couple
of dinosaurs. Play was good, focused & no babbling. Did nice
actions. At end of 15 min he started to fade, not using his own
voice. One prompt helped him gain control - started to get a bit
aggressive when I came in for Coop Play - Really nice. 17 min. Fed
him some play themes and he took right to it. Great behaviors. DRO
& praise. Used props he had made up from Solitary Play.
Solitary Play - 10 min at height. At beg 3 min & then needed
intervention for babbling. Narratives are getting much better. Coop
Play - Lots of stimmy touching & body movement. Made it through
about 8 min at best. Turn taking with narrative is fine.
P.N. - [pointing to "turn taking w/narrative" above] This
is exactly what we AREN'T looking for. Please reread #2 (Appropo
Play) on [date] notes. The give & take is supposed to be w/
ACTION and NOT "narrative". We need to keep verbal interactions
to a minimum w/more actions. The School Psychologist noted that
his playing is "immature" in the way he narrates his stories.
The Brigance book also notes that cooperative play should be "conversational"
in that children age 5.0 play off ea other, almost like musicians
improvising. They're keenly aware of ea other's actions & play
off them w/o necessarily saying much -- he needs this desperately.
Sorry - action turn-taking was good too.
Coop Play - 8 min. Needed prompts about handling animals w/ various
actions - i.e., walking had to be on floor/ground and not in the
air. Also he was making his props (i.e., doghouse) TOO magical -
i.e., flying house. Debriefed about this. Houses can't fly, etc.
(DRO'd in the beginning about animal flexibility - wanted to use
dino checkers. Told him we're using farm animals today.) Solitary
Play - Sort of the same problem in handling animals. Actions were
too exaggerated. Lasted 6 min but w/interruptions about behaviors
- i.e., flying horse, etc.
Solitary Play was completely narrated by him and they ended up in
a big pile b/c they were "fighting the alligator". Redirected.
Used paper towel w/print on it as animals' food & house blanket
for other props. He was very aware of my being in the room &
kept looking towards me for approval. He picked up things (e.g.,
pen) to use as props himself and played this way for 12 min w/the
one interruption for piling the animals. Coop Play - used actions.
When he tried to narrate I did things he had to pay attn. to &
do an action on his own (e.g., shark was after his best friend).
Tried to get him to "play off" my actions.
Solitary Play - Lots of talking betwn animals - Needed prompting
at beg to steer him away from destructive play & towards more
action (but positive action) 12 min after prompted to come up w/positive
actions. Debriefed about more action. Coop Play - 20 min - Dinosaurs
put on a show for the mammals. Lots of movement - like a circus
- lots of praise for following my characters & creating his
Coop - 22 min. Used animals I wanted (as punishment he couldn't
choose what he wanted b/c of the way he behaved in school today).
Play was good - followed lead & created his own story line.
A few prompts needed not to touch other animals i.e., what wasn't
out. Solitary - 9 min. Needed prompts not to lay all over floor.
Needed some ideas to work w/ i.e., farmer working w/ animals. Used
props nicely & creatively. DRO & praise. Body was very calm.
Needed lots of work on non-aggressive/destructive play. He was resistant
to accepting nonviolent themes. DRO'd cooperative (figurines) and
friendly actions. Coop Play was constantly being stopped for aggressive
beh - shaped positive interactions - 8 min max. Solitary play w/theme
given. Serving dinner at birthday party lasted 9 min.
Coop Play - 7 min. He needed work on aggressive play. When he was
leading actions I let him & [brother] play for last few vignettes.
Coop - 7 min. Hard time taking storyline suggestions. Very stuck
on triceratops & T Rex having to fight, etc. Took away T Rex
& gave him themes having to do w/mammals finding a lost friend
(stuck in cave). Wouldn't accept changing topic. Worked on lots
of actions but he was full of conversation. Hard to get out of it.
Solitary - 5 min. Same "aggressive" problem with dinos
& couldn't really accept storyline. Wanted to change it into
something aggressive - closed it down & debriefed. Also hard
time suggesting props or taking my suggestions.
Coop - trains & blocks - 15 min. Great turn-taking. DRO'd for
elaborating on what I said & also adding him own creative thoughts.
Only needed glance to stop himself from holding trains too closely.
Solitary - 12 min. w/trains - Added to story line given to him &
elaborated appropriately. Nice job. Intermittent DRO.
Coop - 9 min. He was fine w/storyline suggestions & led some
action on his own. Solitary - 7 min. had to be shut down for aggressive
play - throwing toy. Debriefed. Made use of props ON HIS OWN. e.g.,
globe as volcano. Lots of praise.
P.N. - Solitary Play can now be a part of Independent Work Drill.
Huge DRO if this is not his first choice.
Coop Play - 19 min. Very good. Nice use of props. Focused listening
to storyline I set up. One reminder needed for voice, otherwise
fine; relaxed & calm body. DRO. Ref'd listening to me &
focusing to school and friends. Solitary Play - 2 reminders to use
his own voice & 3 to sit up while playing. Keeps lying down
& it leads to stimmy behavior w/ feet when he's touching something.
Used two dinos & three dogs. Play was incoherent. He was silent
at times. Tried to prompt him by saying "go on", etc.
Once he settled on a "storyline" -- dinos bothering dogs
-- he got stuck on it. A bit aggressive and lots of weird, silly
noises. I transitioned him to another drill not part of work choice.
Solitary Play 1st - He chose this 2nd (after music) DRO! I put props
on the side of the animals. He needed a prompt to use them, but
once he started he was able to go for 5 in w/appropo play. Lots
of DRO. Coop Play - He had trouble using animals to move props (dinosaur
bones) - Got caught up in making the bones talk and lost focus.
Shut down, refocused & discussed. Coop - 6 min. Big prob cleaning
up 'cause he wanted to play more. Used nasty tone. Apology and debriefing
with ref to school. Megan also debriefed. Lots of work on listening
to teacher 1st time & being respectful.
Coop - 12 min. Nice & calm, very good taking leads today &
using props. A couple of prompts were needed for real voice, otherwise
nice work. Less verbal interaction, more action-oriented play. DRO.
Solitary - Indep Work - used Barbie dols. He dressed them up nicely
& changed clothing -- a little strange when brushing hair and
huge prob cleaning up. Had to debrief him at the end. It took him
longer to clean up than to play. 10 min cleaning time. Worked on
laziness in circle time.
Indep Work - 1st choice Solitary - Needed prompt (shut down &
debriefed) b/c he was putting his head on the floor to look at objects
on the side. Debriefed w/ref to school. Also needed prompts to used
relaxed voice. Needed prompting & storyline to use trains as
trains & not introduce himself as a wolf into the storyline.
3 min. Coop - His actions occasionally strayed very far away from
my lead, but for the most part it was good. Still needs to be directed
to use props & concentrate on actions. 8 min. Clean up was problematic
again, but he got in control (DRO). DRO'd listening quickly (though
not 1st time) and heavily DRO'd 1st response to shape fast listening
& compliance during clean-up.
Indep Work - 1st choice Solitary - 3 min. Needed to shut down &
debrief b/c of noises and clicking toys together, strange voice,
singing, talked about appropo place. Coop - 7 min. He wouldn't play
off my actions & kept wandering away. Debriefed & talked
about leaving activity. Cleanup was great today - 1st time listening.
Solitary - 8 min; Coop - 9 min. Coop - Went off-topic a lot -- he
tried making up lots of excuses-- to use other animals & rationalize
the behavior of his animals (wow). I set up theme in a castle w/animals
going there to perform. He had trouble staying with theme &
playing off it. Needed lots of prompts to do actions, especially
follow them through to the end. Tends to want to skip steps - i.e.,
animals had to walk to back of the line when they finished doing
a trick. He would throw or fly them back. Solitary - sort of the
same problem except actions & verbal stuff seem to be equally
the same in frequency. Tried to have him do more actions using verbal
prompts - i.e., Are they all swimming across the river?
Coop lasted 5 min then he went off on his own thing, smashing toys.
Debriefed. Solitary Play - After 2 1/2 min began subtle clicking
but stopped himself - DRO, and then played for 3 min nicely. [this
is problem --at that time-- therapist]
Solitary Play - Used 6 animals and two trains w/train set. Gave
him a script/theme to play along with. Scene was bad weather - rain,
snow, windy, etc. and train is traveling from one city to another
and the bridge is shaky and may collapse at any minute and train
may derail, etc. His behaviors were good when he was calm. No singing.
DRO. Needed a few reminders to also include the animals in his play.
DRO'd when he did. Play was solid 10 min & he carried a nice
theme throughout. Coop - 12 min. Very relaxed & calm - huge
DRO. Also no singing - DRO. Followed theme nicely. A few reminders
needed not to skip action movement and was able to follow this through.
Coop - 9 min I tried to model a very quiet tone. He needed lots
of prompts to keep loud voice down. He was good about sticking to
theme after first few prompts. Prop use was ok but needed 1 reminder
to use what he set up - i.e., mountain. Solitary - Flexible w/using
fewer animals - he chose like 10 when I told him he could only have
6 or 7. Listened right away. DRO. Got a little too fancy w/play
- i.e., animals were watching TV. Told him that isn't what animals
do. He was reluctant to take prompts. Also needed reminder about
voice. 7 min.
Solitary Play - not part of Indep Wk. Set up 3 props on his own.
DRO. Used 6-7 animals. Voice was normal. A few reminders about following
a theme were needed -- tried to prompt him by providing a script.
Lasted about 6 minutes.
Indep Work 2nd choice - DRO not choosing 1st. Used vehicles and
Buzz L. 2 min on his own w/o a script - When I gave him a starting
script he was able to do 5 min. DRO quiet voice. Coop - Needed prompt
about voice (strange sounds), otherwise followed & shifted actions
well after reminder to focus on action. 6 min.
Not part of Indep Work. Coop - 7 min - He was resistant to using
small animals but then listened & was very flexible. Got to
use his big animals as reward. Stressed that he got them b/c he
listened to a grownup. DRO'd quiet tone, no weird voices. Solitary
- 1 min w/o intervention. Then began fighting w/T Rex and stegosaurus
as usual. Gave him script and played 4 min.
Solitary - 1st choice indep wk. Small figures & doll house &
big object from manipulatives. Told him he has to use both places
& he could decide what the object was. Still not a lot of action
difficulty sequencing events and going from one place to the other
but seemed to do better when directed to use the objects & asked
what will they do next (or some leading questions) -4 min. DRO.
No indep work drill. Doll house & dolls. Sort of reinf for him
for being so good. He asked for it. Played nicely...lots of praise.
Hard to transition him to Coop Play (8 min) and then did well. Went
back to Solitary, cont'd to do great job and listened when I interrupted
him to eat dinner. Big DRO.
Nice & calm - very good e.c. & attn. Did Coop first - 9
min. Paid attn. to script & followed leads nicely. Came up with
some creative props & ideas for storyline. Solitary - 7 min.
A few prompts to play on his own. He kept looking to me for conversation
at first. Did really well w/actions. No weird/loud noises. DRO'd
calm appropriate play. Good clean up.
Coop - used dollhouse. 12 min. Lots of prompts needed initially
b/c he tends to want to start out narrating his play right off the
bat. Prompted him to "act" everything out. This seemed
to be quite effective. It resulted in his doing more actions w/figures
& storyline developed spontaneously as we worked off each other.
Some prompts needed to hold figures still once he gets to a destination
or completes an action. Solitary - not part of indep work - 9 min.
He rolled right into some nice play (acting) w/dollhouse. Good actions
- DRO. Some prompts to hold figures still (as in Coop). Overall
he was calm - no weird behaviors & accepted subtle suggestions
nicely when he seemed "stuck". DRO for good cleanup.
Before he started, I reminded him that he has to act things out.
Prompted him to set up scenes 1st. Set up grassy area & water
& trees for animals. Played for 1 min., just verbally. I redirected
him to scenes & reminded him about action. 6 min. Coop - Animals
& dollhouse. DRO'd action. He had some nice, creative ideas
involving props & actions (rhino taking a mud bath in the tub).
Shifted action well. Big problem cleaning up. Got T.O. Refused to
take it and said "I mean it" and threatened to get worse.
Talked about it being his responsibility. Megan had to come in and
help with T.O. and we worked on remorse/apologizing.
Solitary - 6 min (not Indep Wk). He played w/animals & dollhse
creatively & calmly for 1st 2 min. Then he needed a prompt to
quiet his voice down and 2 xs not to click animals together. DRO
for appropriate play. Coop (Indep Wk - 2nd choice) Needed prompt
for singing & prompt for transitioning. Got nasty & said
he wanted to take a break and he meant it & I better listen
to him! I got stern & he gave me an apology. Then did it again.
I got another apology and then he moved on - 5 min. Coop play w/[playdate]
- he needed to be prompted through entire thing. Noises & singing
interfered for 2 min. Disappointing. Debriefed.
He played with animals (Solitary) - 4 min. Needed prompt not to
play rough. Initially did nice job acting out. DRO for this and
quiet tone and being gentle after prompt. He didn't answer me at
first but I got firm & corrected. Played for 3 more min. Didn't
get Cooperative Play.
Solitary and Coop - not part of Indep. Wk. Coop - 8 min. Tried to
set up and play. He didn't need prompt to come over to play but
I had him "ask me" for practice and ref'd this to school
situation. He had a hard time following my "acting" at
first b/c he kept "telling" & narrating what the animals
should be doing. He didn't bring up any "Lion King" and
dinosaur themes. DRO'd. Solitary - 6 min. Better job acting out
a "helping" theme. I set up for him. Heavy DRO and I prompted
out specific behaviors and acting he did with animals. Hopefully
it made impression for next time.
P.N. - For COOPERATIVE PLAY, have some of the animals out that would
be in "Lion King" or some of the dinosaurs which would
be in "Land Before Time". YOU start playing with these
animals BUT using a DIFFERENT theme than "Lion King" or
"Land Before Time"
Prompt him to ask "Can I play with you?"
DRO big if he joins your game on his own & doesn't change it
to the usual
DRO big if he injects HIS OWN ideas/themes that are not the usual
(watch for & write down something you've seen him do with you
or others so YOU can hit it. He needs to LEARN what repeating and
getting "stuck" means and how it FEELS. He really doesn't
get that yet. For him it's still natural to repeat and we have to
let him know and DRO his not following that tendency.
-- Please try hard to begin YOUR play w/the animals/ dinosaurs WHILE
he's involved with some other activity. This will make it more analogous
to school where kids will be playing something and he will (hopefully)
learn how to notice and join them.
--Lots of notes on the above.
Solitary (Indep Work - 1st choice). Gave him kitchen set & dolls.
He went to play w/dolls when all the pieces were scattered all over
the place. I prompted him to set up first & then play w/dolls
(thought maybe this would help organize him). He was very calm &
spoke in a calm voice. DRO'd a lot - 6 min until he started making
strange sounds w/the dolls & holding them in stimmy way. Coop
- I set up dinos, lion, blocks, alligator. He walked over, grabbed
a dino & began on his own storyline. Redirected & reminded
him that it's my game & asked what he needs to do. He correctly
asked "Can I play w/you?" DRO. He joined my story after
a redirection and prompt "What's happening?" - DRO Once
he was involved in my story (animals working together to build a
bridge to reach the alligator), he was able to generate his own
actions. DRO nice job. Clean up was a little more rigid. Needed
redirection. Didn't listen 1st time. Worked on apology. Needed prompt
to apologize and for e.c.
Coop - Put out big LEGOs, some dinos and animals. At beg I started
playing. He walked over & just grabbed animal. Vague prompt
worked for him to ask me if he could play & another prompt to
ask me what was going on. We worked together to use blocks to build
a ride for animals. He did nice job picking up action & alternating
action. Followed along well. - 12 min. Solitary - Used LEGOs as
props. More action than usual. DRO 7 min. DRO'd action & quiet
tone. Great job!
Coop - I used Tyco blocks, dinos, lion & lioness w/Gak. He needed
prompt to ask if he could play (he just joined in at first and said
"let's pretend this guy...etc."). I stopped him &
prompted him to ask me what I was playing. We had a dinosaur trapped
in quicksand (Gak) w/hungry lions about to eat him. The other dinosaurs
had to climb a mtn to save him. We built stairs & then he brought
dragon into the game who flew over & saved dinosaurs. He played
really well. DRO for ideas. Solitary - Played nicely building w/LEGOs
& using dinosaurs. He pretended the LEGOs were a "magic
machine"! The dinos climbed it, fell down, helped ea other
in lots of action w/o getting loud & he kept his body calm.
- 9 min. LOTS of DRO! Clean up caused him to talk back. T.O. Talked
about apologizing 1st. Then cleaned up w/o a problem. ----He tried
to make dinos have ride like w/[other ther] (see entry dated [date]).
Told him I didn't want to and he was very flexible.
Coop - 10 min. I set up figures & used animals to play. He came
over quickly. Needed prompt to ask to play (he grabbed an animal
& just began on his own). Discussed "asking" as related
to other kids. Sometimes they may say "yes" and sometimes
"no". Needed prompts to use lower tone & his own voice.
DRO'd when he listened "now".
Solitary - 7 min. Cont'd with what was already set up. Needed help
w/carrying a theme across his play. Used actions but he exaggerated
too much - i.e., elephant has heavy walk and he banged it up and
down (s) for effects. DRO'd the action but tried to have him tone
it down a bit.
Coop - 9 min. Hard time starting out b/c he was stuck on wanting
to use certain animals & certain props. I suggested we use new
props. Pretended to make a volcano w/sheepskin mat & red paper
around it. He got stuck on wanting to use sheepskin only as cold
place where polar bear lives. Once this got resolved, he did better
but still needed prompts to use more actions & act out the scene.
Animals are trying to get safety before volcano eruption. Solitary
- 5 min. Cont'd on Coop Play theme. I set up situation for him.
The land has been burned b/c of lava & animals had to find new
land to live. He did ok except for loud voice & very exaggerated
animal behaviors - i.e., elephant jumps across mtns.
Coop - 12 min. Helped to set up props. Nice job; DRO. Took my suggestion
to use new props. Came up with some original ideas - i.e., smock
was water b/c it was blue. Worked on actions and needed lots of
prompts to keep it on the floor and not in the air. VOICE was off
the wall. Lots of reminders to keep his own voice & to ACT and
not TELL the story. Improved slightly towards end. Solitary - 9
min. (Part of Indep. Wk. - 1st choice) Asked him to tell me what
the "scene" was before he began. Couldn't really articulate
what he intended to do. Helped him set up a situation (animals looking
for sweeter grass). He tried to follow through but needed reminders
to stick to story. Body was fidgety & not using his own voice.
I modeled gentle tone & tried to DRO him whenever he used good
voice. He put animals away ritualistically, banging on toy chest
and then putting them into a box. Made him do it again right way
and he didn't like it but did it anyhow. DRO'd listening to adults.
Coop - Tyco blocks & animals. Built store where animals went
shopping. Great participation. Still needs prompt to ask to play.
Good following my actions w/his own shifts - 15 min. DRO'd staying
w/what we were doing & not getting carried away. Solitary -
Indep Wk choice #1. Only 2 min at a time before it involved clicking
together, rhyming or noises. Stopped & debriefed.
Coop - at [playdate]'s. We used lots of stuffed animals. I tried
to have her lead the play. She did pretty good job. Nice play. I
followed her as a model for him. He followed leads at first but
had a very loud tone. Sort of struggling to be "heard"
b/c she kept directing her attn. to me. He wanted her attn.! I tried
to make it so that they would be interacting. She naturally used
her environment as props. He followed DRO. Needed some help to keep
body clam, otherwise he did pretty well.
Solitary - dollhse. Play was poor. Lots of made-up words. Req'd
constant stopping 1-2 min. Also clicking animals together. Coop
- Shaped play using real words & proper movement. 5 min. We
also watch [brother] play w/the dollhse and we together DRO'd his
playing quietly and appropriately.
Coop - 12 min. Used dollhse. This was first drill we did today (he'd
just woken up). He was calm, relaxed, and used a great gentle tone.
Heavy DRO. No prob following lead and using toys appropriately.
He "acted" out parts. Didn't "tell" the story
- huge DRO at the end & intermittent DRO while playing. Solitary
- Nice continuation from above. Really good playing. No weird noises,
although he did overdo driving noises. DRO for not asking me to
join back in (he usually does). Theme cont'd w/ school where he
reconstructed his own life in the play -- i.e., boy was great in
school, parents very proud, etc. Needed a couple of prompts to sit
up. DRO'd gentle tone. Cleaned up right away when I asked (DRO -
Solitary (Indep Wk 1st choice) - Before he started, reminded him
about having a storyline, using betwn 6 and 8 animals and ACTING
the story out. Really nice tone - gentle & didn't sing or growl.
Heavy DRO. Followed a nice storyline about animals looking for water.
Set up on his own. DRO'd. 1 prompt to not overdo diving in water.
Play behaviors were mostly calm w/occasional "rough" fighting,
which he didn't OVERDO b/c he was monitoring himself by looking
at me once in a while. DRO - 11 minutes!!!! Nice job. Coop - 12
min. Not as smooth as solitary. Some trouble following leads - got
stuck on having animals to only one action. Stopped & debriefed.
Did lots of modeling which helped him to focus. Needed reminder
to keep tone gentle. Much better towards the end - DRO. Had to be
told 3x to "clean up". He was too stuck on trying to tell
me what to do next (i.e., directing therapy). Used NOW as prompt
for his cleanup and debriefed about listening to adults.
Solitary - Needed prompts at beg to develop a storyline. W/O prompts
he was just sitting & feeling lion's teeth. Needed prompts not
to lie on floor when playing. DRO'd quiet tone. Needed reminder
to use structures he built w/animals. DRO'd quiet. Got 1 T.O. for
singing. Cooperative - GREAT! Asked to play and what I would like
to do independently. DRO'd. 15 min. Great shifting activity &
following leads & creating his own activity. Needed prompt to
clean up quickly. Listened first time. DRO.
P.N. - SHOOT FOR 12-15 MINUTES COOPERATIVE PLAY
Coop - [brother] in room. I started to play w/[brother] and [name]
barged in. Stopped. Debriefed and reminded him about asking. Practiced
this 2x. DRO for working on it and being flexible. Some trouble
following my suggestions - I just kept moving on to see what he
would do. When he didn't want "panda" to go up in the
tree, his voice got louder b/c he was trying to CHANGE my actions.
Stopped & debriefed about this. He got much more flexible later
on. Nice personal space, esp with [brother] around -- made sure
to hit this. [Brother] was good too! DRO'd him. 9 min.
Solitary - 15 min Really nice work. Gave him trains to play w/ and
reminded him about "acting" out a story. Used props in
their context - i.e., table chair, toy chest. Nice job. No singing
or growling noises (probably b/c it wasn't animals). Body was calm
and relaxed. DRO. Ref'd nice play to school & playdates.
Solitary only (ran out of time). 3rd area choice. 7 min & then
had to go to bed (had him use name card). Needed prompt to "act"
Coop - 15 min. Did good job shifting themes & following my shifts.
DRO for maintaining good pers space. Needed reminder to use real
voice. Solitary - 1st Area choice - He used themes from our Coop
Play (is this ok?) P.N. - yes. Went to "Disneyland". Set
up characters and had dolls visit. DRO for relaxed body & gentle
Solitary - 7 min. Did "time to stop" He was reluctant
to stop but gave in. DRO'd flexibility. A little prompt needed for
growls, but once he started to play did great playing & following
a storyline. DRO. Nice acting.
Coop - 17 min. Great job towards end. For the beg had to stop couple
of times b/c of aggressive behavior w/characters (used little Disney
chars). Once he started playing nicely he followed my leads which
I switched constantly too! DRO - body was relaxed & e.c. was
COOPERATIVE PLAY - Shape 12-15 minutes
- Keep shifting and getting him to shift with you (this is the ESSENCE
of cooperative play)
- Keep starting with things he's familiar with and shifting away
from his usual themes.
- Big DRO if he injects his own themes.
- Keep working on his asking to "play with you".
SOLITARY PLAY - Shape 7-10 minutes
Only Solitary today (ran out of time). 6 min w/animals. Needed prompt
to use props. Trouble stopping when I asked him to. Got T.O. for
talking back. Kept trying to explain. I told him he needs to sit
quietly and not talk. I kept reminding him to sit quietly &
escalated (T.O.) to me going to door of rm. He stopped talking,
cried & apologized. DRO and debrief re: understanding his feelings.
Solitary - 6 animals. Debriefed about having a story & using
props. Needed a couple of prompts to stop silly noises/talk. Asked
him in serious voice - worked nicely. Had difficulty following the
theme he set up on his own in the beg (animals searching for secret
pond). Used time to stop once. I saw that he wasn't picking up other
prompts to change story a bit. Lasted 8 min. Coop - 15 min. Nice
job. I started a theme using Wizard of Oz/Snow White ideas.
Solitary - 9 min. Set up his own props, i.e., used chairs as volcano
& bureau as safe mountain. Nice actions w/animals Need prompts
about some noises -- easily redirected. Used a consistent theme
throughout. DRO. Coop - about 10 min. Had some trouble paying attn.
Needs lots of prompts and help with listening to Jessica and me.
Did some wild behavior with characters. Listened when I told him
to stop. Biggest problem was he didn't pay attn. to Jessica [playdate].
I tried prompting her a bit to talk to him. I guess she was shy
a bit since this was the first time they met. Prompts were needed
for personal space.
Solitary - 8 min. He did a nice job, esp w/gentle tone & quiet
body. Lot of good action - DRO.
Coop - 23 min! I started this out on my own. Gave him a hard time
b/c he was forgetting to ASK to join me. I wanted to see how long
it would take him to figure it out. I had to prompt him after 5
min. Gave him amble opportunities to ask but he mistook my not wanting
to play w/him as selfish. i.e., would tell him "hey, that was
MY space!" or "this is a farm -- no dinosaurs allowed",
etc. He seemed irritated and threatened to tell "mommy"
that I was being selfish. Once I prompted him to ask . He was OK.
Stopped a couple of times to debrief about "flexibility"
(ref'd to children in school) of story & following other kids'
suggestions. He tried to change story to his way. I pretended to
treat him like other kids would (you can't play w/ me if you're
not doing it "right", etc.) I didn't want to sound as
if I were whining so once it didn't work I stopped the play. His
actions when he didn't try to change story were great! He had a
relaxed body (DRO) and voice & tone were at his best.
Solitary - used 8 animals. Set up props & animals on his own.
DRO. I asked ?s about storyline to get him going. Needed prompt
to act & use actions instead of telling the story. Theme was
vague; wasn't really developing the story & kept requiring prompts
to continue. lasted 7 min. Coop - 14 min. Lots of trouble doing
actions. Kept trying to narrate. Stopped & debriefed. Got two
T.O.s -- one for arguing about how the "wolf" should behave
and one for interrupting me after I tried to talk about his feelings
after T.O. #1. Told him to be flexible when other characters are
saying the actions of other animals. Told him to listen to this
b/c that's his cue to act i.e., here comes the farmer. He has to
make the farmer come. This is a big prob for him b/c he always tries
to do opposite the suggestion and thus not following the leads of
other kids. Practiced doing just this. He did a great job. I pointed
this out to him. BIG DRO. Used "time to stop" when he
started getting into it. He was flexible. DRO.
Solitary - 6 min and then made up silly word/shut down & debriefed.
Needed prompt to use new props I gave him to create a place. Still
needs encouragement to concentrate on going places & doing things,
but he'd getting much better at varying his stories. Coop - 10 min.
Needed prompt to ask to play. Great job shifting actions. Somewhat
hesitant to use the propellor (that he had used earlier as "food")
as a tree, but he went along anyhow -- DRO!!
Solitary - Barbie post office - 14 min. He spent lots of time setting
up pieces. Needed prompt to use the dolls to act stuff out, but
did a great job when he started. DRO. Clean up was somewhat problematic.
He kept getting caught up in playing with objects and not putting
them away. Talked back. T.O. (went quietly). Debriefed w/validation
of feelings & he returned to cleaning up well. DRO.
Solitary - 7 min. Then too loud. Talked about using "inside"
voice. Needed to be guided to create theme, otherwise he stayed
on same toys in same area.
Solitary - 8 min (1st choice indep play) - Again needed "inside"
voice reminder and cross-talked. Debriefed. Did "time to stop"
-- Needed T.O. (see "AREA DRILL"). DRO for quiet body
& quiet inside voice after reminder. Needed to be prompted for
apology after invaded my space. Started putting doll on my head.
Cleaned up when I told him to. Lots of DRO.
Coop - 10 min b/c short on time. He needed guidance for story- lines
& got stuck on playing w/Barbie's hair and "chasing"
Solitary - 8 min dollhse. Had to set up. Needed 2 prompts to keep
rooms separated. He was trying to act silly & join living rm
& bathrm together. Set up took him 5 min. He was careful to
organize pieces. DRO. Told him to use inside voice 2x and when he
got really into play, told him "time to stop". I joined
him Coop - joined him right after solitary play. Actions were pretty
good todya. DRO -- some subtle voice reminders were needed. Otherwise
he carried out theme well for 12 min. DRO -- body was relaxed.
Solitary - needed help in beginning b/c he was holding two or more
animals in one hand. Had to stop & debrief about using only
one in ea hand. Tried to make excuses that he wants animals to get
away at the same time. Labelled it "excuse". Modelled
appropriate play & told him he can't play if he doesn't do it
right way. This worked & he got back in line & played for
8 min after this first intervention. DRO -- used actions & had
a coherent story going. Heavy DRO.
Solitary - 11 min. Still needs help formulating props & keeping
ction moving. Without reminders about action, play becomes monologue
which moves into sounds/singing. He had hard time w/clean-up. Talked
back & got T.O. Debriefed -- valid feelings. Needed reminders
not to talk. Also problem going to T.O. .... picked up hands but
controlled imself. Discussed. DRO'd "inside" voice. Coop
- 14 min. Played w/animals. Animal races. Still needs prompts to
keep action moving. Wants to interject his own monologues.
Built park for animals to play in. Coop - 12 min. Nice job shifting
ACTIONS. DRO'd use of props & movement. Didn't get stuck in
conversation. Very nice.
He did amazing appropriate play (1st choice). 15 min. w/shifting
actions, inside voice, NO singing, a relaxed body. Tons of DRO.
He kept going back to it during breaks as well (he was playing w/the
BIG doll house). Gave redirection if stuck on monologue. Coop -
12 min. due to lack of time. Cont. w/doll house. At 1st he was reluctant
to follow my leads, but then he did fine & initiated as well.
Solitary - 8 min. Set up props for play. Made a forest -- used 8
animals. Storyline was good. I kept probing him for details. Voice
was great. DRO'd "inside" voice. Prompted him to perform
more ACTIVITY instead of dialogue. Also needed reminder to handle
1 to 2 animals at a time instead of a bunch in his hands. Coop -
13 min. The best play I've seen in a long time! Really on w/actions
& very gentle, totally playing off my lines. Heavy DRO. Didn't
give me any qualms about ending play. Used "time to stop".
Coop - 10 min. This was the first drill we did. He was in constant
motion, not focused, needed lots of prompts to pay attn. & listen
first time to story & play off of actions. Had to stop him constantly.
Solitary Play - 7 min. Much improved after debriefing about coop
& constantly prompting in the beg. Listened 1st time & used
actions. Body was calmer too. Used "time to stop".
Solitary - 9 min. Started out prompting for a descriptive storyline.
Needed help keeping one animal in ea hand. Keeps wanting to horde
2 or more. DRO when he held one in each. Actions were low in comparison
to conversational play. Prompted more action. Improved towards end.
Coop - 13 min. Had to stop a lot b/c he wasn't accepting my storyline
direction. He was rigid about it, constantly trying to change what
I set up to do. Actions were good. DRO. Watch out for RIGIDITIES.
He's using the animals as excuse to keep big lion & little lion
or big tiger & little tiger together, as father & son, husband
& wife, etc. For some reason he can't have 1 animal do something
w/o consulting w/the other. I'm sure the skill will be useful sometime
in his future, however it's not helping now. I debriefed about it
& discussed potential play w/other kids.
Solitary 7 min. (2nd choice) - His body was really relaxed (DRO).
Put out doll hse. He needed prompt when he got stuck on the clock.
Did well moving the people around the house & going places,
changing furniture. Lots of talking through it, but creating different
scenarios. Coop 14 min. I joined him in the house. He refused a
bit at 1st (in charge), but I stayed in character & insisted.
He gave in. Needed one reminder.
Solitary - 1st area choice - 7 min. He needed prompts to create
action. Needed reminder for inside voice. DRO when he moved figures
around & created story. Coop - 13 min. Needed prompts periodically
to act out stuff & not narrate. Also got pretty violent/aggressive
against my figure. I shut down play & when we continued he played
Coop. 15 min. - Used dollhse. Animals seemed too rewarding today
(especially b/c of school incident). Setting up was good. DRO. Body
was calm. Needed prompts to stay w/story. Dinner- time ordering
& trying new foods. Acting was good. DRO. [Brother] joined us
for a few min. Used him as a model. [Bro] was calm & listened
to me. Nice play. DRO. He got a little silly when [bro] played w/me.
Told him to cut it out. It worked nicely.
Solitary - 7 min. I gave him storyline to follow & finish up
play. He went on a tangent doing wild things with cat meowing all
over. Stopped & debriefed, then started again following storyline.
Right when he got into it, told him "time to stop" - Cleaned
up nicely without clicking toys. DRO.
Coop - 14 min. Built forest together. Used 5 animals. He had hard
time initially not orchestrating the entire activity. He was resistant
to my characters' actions. Discussed this & he dramatically
improved. Solitary - 5 min. & then strayed into violent play
Solitary - Barbies & Kitchen set. He quietly set up kitchen
& began playing w/utensils & not dolls. After about 1-2
min of this he moved to the dolls (DRO) 9 min. & then got stuck
on silly piling up of dolls. Stopped play. Coop - 9 min. Needed
prompting to stay in character. He had a hard time staying as the
doll & keeping the action moving w/the doll when props were
involved. Shaped focus on the doll as the actor. No violent play.
Solitary - 16 min! Pieces from alphabet hanging on wall. Excellent
job. Needed no direction. Made up great action- oriented story lines.
(Lots of DRO!) Coop - Used animals - play got violent. Redirected
scenes. Kept going back to violent play. Told him I didn't want
to play w/him anymore & time to stop. Chose different area.
6 min. [above ther was gone w/in one month--emotionally burnt out
-- she'd been was us for over two yrs and might have been our most
creative therapist for the first two & definitely spent the
most time with our son at this point]
Coop - Great job. 17 min. The funniest play ever. We had animals
out along with props. Storyline had to do w/a hungry wolf in the
forest that needed food badly but was afraid to get it. It was dinner
time and my stomach let out a soft growl (sounded like a hungry
wolf). His face turned pale as he asked "what was THAT?"
I went along w/his line of thought & said "It's a wolf
in my tummy". Had him going for a few seconds before he said
I was kidding (he was laughing nervously!) His play was great. Followed
my lead after a couple of prompts. DRO. Nice gentle tone and wasn't
violent. DRO. Solitary - 7 min. Nice actions & dialogue. DRO.
Stopped on his own saying he was done playing w/animals. This was
the first time I've seen him stop on his own & clean up. Heavy
Solitary - 9 min. Nice job. He was quiet when playing. Keeping a
low voice trying not to wake [brother] up. DRO. Play was good, didn't
do violent things and took suggestions/prompts from me right away.
DRO. Coop - 15 min. Nice job. Some prompts were needed to follow
storyline & perform actions. Listened right away -- DRO. Used
soft, gentle voice & cleaned up nicely. DRO.
Coop Play - 10 min. Really worked hard on moving away from narration
to action. Practiced acting out what he was thinking using the animals
instead of saying it or introducing it. Lots of praise for nice
job. Solitary - 5 min. Needed prompts to hold figures down &
not in front of eyes. Play deteriorated into violent theme (growling/biting)
& needed redirection.
Coop 12 min (1st choice in Areas drill) -- Worked on holding animals
by the MIDDLE of their body & not their mouths. Used flannel
board props (2 stores) & built them out with Lincoln Logs. No
violent play. He seemed to have an easier time with storyline using
stores. Worked on looking at animals & other person & not
staring off in another direction. Continued to work on movement
w/o introduction. Solitary - 9 min. Did nice job w/animals &
toy store (some Toy Story stuff but varied). DRO'd holding animals
in CENTER of bodies & keeping them on floor. Great clean up.
P.N. - Keep working hard on holding animals by the MIDDLE of their
body & not their mouths.
Really had to work on the above. He needed constant prompting/ reminders.
He engaged in violent play w/o frequent redirection. Still narrating
all movements. Modeled doing action w/o words explaining action.
11 min solitary [this again is ther who left soon after; she's the
one below too -- at this point we had three]
Coop - 12 min. He needed prompts to hold animals in middle but much
less than yesterday. DRO More action too. Developed into violent
after 10 min. Redirected w/no problem. DRO. Solitary (1st area)
- 8 min. He used lots of narration & needed prompts to hold
animals, but great job creating stories. Needed redirection from
violent themes 2x. Interrupted. Used place card [something they
had in school].
Solitary - (indep wk 1st choice) 10 m. DRO'd use of animals by the
middle right away. Did nice job throughout play w/this. Told him
to talk as little as possible, that I only wanted to see actions
(made it seem like a challenge to him). Did pretty well initially
but needed prompts throughout. DRO'd when he did it on his own.
Used some nice props (e.g., sponge for a towel--came up w/this on
his own. DRO'd). No violence. Tried to discourage animals living
up in the air (didn't want to draw attn to this). Coop - 16 m. Cool
job. I modeled only actions using lots of facial expressions. He
was very focused & naturally knew how to respond to my characters/animals.
Heavy DRO. He also did much more actions & used narration occasionally.
DRO. Play was calm, e.c. was great. DRO.
Coop - 11 min (1st choice Indep Wk) - Continued w/[above ther]'s
focus on minimizing talking & working on actions -- DRO'd holding
animal in middle. Needed 1 or 2 prompts to not hold mouth. Some
rigidity. DRO'd flexibility. Solitary - 6 min - Needed prompt to
have animals look at ea other. DRO'd holding in middle. Needed prompt
to use his own voice. Worked on having animals face ea other &
talk to ea other rather than being up in the air.
P.N. - Animals must face each other when initiating. See [ther]'s
Coop - 9 min. (Area Choice 1) He suggested we play "three little
pigs". Cont'd w/[ther]'s and [ther]'s above targets. We weren't
allowed to talk, only act. He did well. Needed a couple reminders
to make animals face each other & to hold them by the middle
of their bodies. Needed modeling to make them stay on the floor
Solitary - 5 min. A little resistant to starting play on his own.
Needed lots of reminders to talk less (he did lots of narrating
initially). He held back on really developing a storyline b/c he
wanted me to join him. Also was trying to direct me to be the pig
or lion, etc. (could come across as bossy or pushy to another kid).
I refused to be what he assigned. Coop - 10 min. Used a lot of modeling
of actions & emotions to get him in the swing of it. I didn't
respond to him when he talked too much. This seemed as a cue for
him to ACT behaviors of the animals. DRO'd whenever I could.
Solitary - 6 min (1st area choice). Needed prompt to sit up when
playing (laying head on ground) and hold one animals at a time.
Again, lots of talking. I redirected by asking him what movie the
animals could all be in & he can act out a scene like in the
movie. DRO'd action & movement. Still needed prompts to have
animals talk to ea other (looking). DRO'd holding in the middle.
Coop - 10 min. Continued w/variation from Drama drill. Nice job.
DRO'd holding animal in middle. Still some probs having animal facing
ea other & keeping them on floor. DRO'd this whenever I saw
it. Beautiful, quick clean up.
Solitary - 3 min. max of play w/o prompting. Lots of probs w/clicking
animals together & noises & tactile stim on animals. Had
to stop numerous times. Coop - 10 min. Played variation of Shepherd
& the Wolf. DRO'd holding animal in middle, keeping it on floor,
looking/ facing animal it was talking to. DRO'd good clean up.
Solitary - 7 min (1st area). He was very imaginative w/my suggestions
today. Talked a lot and wouldn't stop. Lots of noises & movement.
Had to give him a T.O. for not listening 1st time & not answering
me when I called his name. Didn't do Cooperative b/c he was demanding
it in too a rude & bossy way.
Solitary - 5 min. Needed some prompts to use his own voice. His
rule - must always use dinos and wolf. Didn't use these things.
Nice clean up. Coop - good. 14 min. HE was able to interject his
own appropo play following my lead - flexible & on target. Nice.
DRO'd using his own voice & holding animals in middle &
facing ea. other & walking them on floor.
Coop - 20 min!!!! Really focused on animal & people interaction
& staying away from predator/prey themes. Worked really well
& followed my lead based on my "actions" & people
behavior (i.e., man in car driving through safari said he hoped
giraffe would come closer so he could take a photo -- then he brought
the giraffe over). Big DRO for listening to my "message"s.
Nice exchanging of roles. First he handed me animals, then I did.
Very flexible. DRO.
Coop - 11 min. Theme was farm. He played animal parts. I was farmer.
Worked on doing farm things (i.e., feeding animals, milking cows,
shaving wool off lamb, etc.). He did nice job of following lead
& staying within farm theme. Held animals in middle. DRO. Solitary
- 5 min. Started out w/him briefly using "three little pigs"
story theme. Did ok initially but I forgot that this was too much
of a predator/prey theme, which he happily wanted to do, esp since
wolf was involved. I used time to stop before he got too excited.
P.N. - Keep targeting:
Holding more than one animal per hand
Animals that DON'T talk to each other
Animals not held in middle
Co-operative Play - SHOOT FOR 15 MINUTES
- Create an environment & have activities in that milieu e.g.,
state fair, barn, zoo, safari, dollhse w/animals as pets, etc. -
Always have people in the activity - If he strays remind him where
he is ("you're on a farm!") - Do not convert to solitary
Solitary Play - KEEP SHOOTING FOR 5 to 7 MINUTES
- Read a story (or part of a story) where animals are central -
Act out your story CO-OPERATIVELY w/his animal & fade back,
allowing him to play on his own. - If he strays, re-join him.
KEEP AWAY FROM PREDATOR/PREY THEMES.
Coop - 11 min. Museum w/dinos & people. Needed a couple of reminders
about where he was, but came up w/ some nice story lines. Needed
prompts for correct holding of people & animals. E.C. between
dolls is getting much better. DRO! Solitary - "Horton Hatches
The Egg" - I faded after story had been set up. He quickly
changed story to violent theme. Prompted him back on track. Needed
prompts to use real voice. Needed occasional prompts to stay on
track. DRO'd holding people & animals correctly. Making noises
after I told him to stop. Treated like "I must talk" --
put up my finger & stress inoculation (when he was trying to
explain). He put his hand up & kept talking. T.O. - valid &
Coop - 10 min. Circus - Barbie & Ken performers in circus. He's
still having difficulty when focus isn't completely on animals.
Keeps shifting to animals & needs to be shifted back. Eye contact
better & less prompting needed to hold animals. Still working
on keeping people/animals on floor. Solitary - 5 min. The Little
Elf. Needed prompt to stay w/story, then DRO'd this. Getting better
at using people & animals. Needed prompt to hold properly. DRO
Coop - 11 min. - Theme was a "country picnic" where people
can go horseback riding. Had to stop play a couple of times b/c
he got carried away w/lady bug role -- too much flying, etc. Wouldn't
listen to prompts from my characters -- debriefed him on acting
& listening to characters for cues. Held animals nicely. DRO
Voice needed some reminders to keep it gentle. Solitary - Read Polar
Bear book - Baby bear gets lost & travels all over before he
makes it home again. Started out helping him get props & lead
him to story--then faded. Had to use a few verbal prompts when he
played alone to keep him flowing w/the story. Overall he did OK.
Held animals well. Good actions but a bit dependent on having/looking
to me for guidance.
Coop - 16 min. Theme was a forest & woodcutters were heading
in to chop up some trees. Forest animals were watching what went
on. He had a prob initially w/my playing the animals parts b/c he
wanted to be the wolf (what else?) Got him to be flexible about
it. DRO. I also took the focus off of wolf role. Used other animals
more. He was good at picking up on my cues & getting out this
character. Had to stop one x b/c he got aggressive & silly purposely.
Once we cont'd again, he did nice job w/participation & listening.
Held toys nicely. DRO.
Coop - 11 min. Variation of house w/dolls & 1 animal (house
pet). He was holding dolls much better. DRO & DRO e.c. &
staying on topic. Still some trouble when focus isn't on animal.
Tried to make other content exciting & DRO focus on dolls. Solitary
- 5 min. Magic School Bus Hops Home - Great attn. Helped him structure
himself in the beg with leading ?s -- Who is the teacher? Where
are they? etc. Did a very nice job acting out 1st scene of the story.
Solitary - 6 1/2 m. Bambi. Used 1st 5 pp. of bk. DRO'd following
story & holding animals. Needed prompt not to make noises.
Coop - 12 min. w/[brother]. Played petting zoo -- His doll was the
tour guide - Animals just stood there & people were focus of
action. Really nice job. He had harder time going along w/[brother]'s
actions. DRO'd trading off with [brother -- at this time his brother
was had just turned 3].
Coop - 12 min. Played "farming" using people & animals.
He pretended to be the animals. I was farmer. Great job listening
to farmer & acting out w/the animals (e.g., OK sheep, you can
go into the field to eat). He was picking up on cues really well.
DRO. Eye contact & body were great. Held animals nicely. DRO.
Solitary - 8 min. Started w/him 1st two minutes acting out "Zack's
Alligator" (we read book first), then I faded myself out. He
followed storyline for a couple of min before requiring a few prompts
to stick to story (generally). Held animals nicely. DRO. Also used
a nice tone.
Solitary - He asked to play "Jungle Book" - Told him I
didn't know the story but he could at it out & put on show for
me. He did a great job setting up the scene & using animals/person
to do the dialogue. 8 minutes of acting and 4 minutes of set up!
Needed two prompts for holding animals. Beautiful job. Coop - 10
min w/[brother]. Played house. He had hard time staying w/the story
b/c he got caught up in props.
Coop - 12 min. Animals/Dolls/Trains. Dolls were going on a trip
& animals guided them to trains. I really exaggerated my doll's
movements to get him to look at her when his dolls was talking to
her. Nice job holding doll & animal. Good flow of activity.
DRO. Solitary - Dinner at Panda Palace (book). Needed prompts to
not have animals walk on his body. Space bubble. 5 min set up &
10 min play, but with prompting needed for holding animals. DRO'd
acting out & using dialogue.
Coop - 12-15 min. w/[brother] and I. Used train tracks, people &
animals. Pretended people were headed on a trip. Train falls off
the tracks. People get hurt, etc. Animals try to help them. Needed
prompt to hold animals & train nicely. Seemed a bit zoney sometimes.
Wasn't listening to convers or acting part of play. Shaped up towards
end. Was a little distracted by [brother]. Tried to model soft voice
for him (he was loud).
Coop - 16 min. - Really nice job. We used the dollhouse & domestic
pets. Little kid wanted to buy pet puppy. Great job w/acting &
dialogue. Held animals & characters appropriately; occasionally
required prompts to keep characters on floor & not in air. Good
job picking up on cues & guiding me w/his own original ideas.
Heavy DRO for this. Solitary - 7 min. Happy B'day Mickey book. Started
out with him setting up a Mickey character, pretend cake, etc. He
found B'day hats to use as props. DRO. Needed some reminders to
stick to a storyline a little better (i.e., Minnie threw the party
-- it was a surprise). I faded out quickly & he cont'd on his
own. Started to get a little silly. That's when I called "time
to stop". He had no prob w/it (sorry, I forgot animals have
to be primary characters in Solitary play).
Coop - 17 min. Hunters going to forest to hunt deer. We alternated
who played people & who played animals. Nice job picking up
on cues. Held animals/people nicely. DRO. Wanted to do woodpecker
a bit too much. Stopped when I asked him to. DRO. Solitary - Animals
were primary. Situation was jungle w/a railroad passing on the side.
Started out with him & then faded out after 2 min. Needed prompts
to use more language rather than animal noises. Also had to remind
him to act play out more. Needed one reminder to stop singing. 6
min. Clean up turned into a prob--he refused to do it on his own.
Whined & rudely said he's not going to do it. Kept talking.
Got T.O. for it. He was pretty mad. Yelled & said he was mad
at me in particular for giving him a T.O. Cleaned up after T.O.
w/o any qualms.
P.N. - NO PREDATOR / PREY THEMES!!!!
P.N. - Appropriate "Cooperative Play" is 20 min. w/2 or
3 children in small group situations for a 5 year old.
Solitary - Hiccups for Elephant (book). Needed prompt for holding
animals in ctr. 3 min set up. Had some trouble remembering story
line. I needed to feed him some of the dialogue & this helped
him to keep the action moving. He didn't use narration. DRO! 8 min.
Played zoo w/[brother] - 10 min. Had to work on space bubble. Prob.
staying off [brother]. Good use of dialogue & movement. Followed
story line well.
Coop - w/[brother]. Barbie pool. He had a hard time focusing on
the dolls. Was stuck on the props. He was the daddy & it was
his job to watch the other dolls. This helped somewhat, but he was
still only able to do about 5 min. Kept moving away from storyline
to play w/props or splash water. Solitary - Three Little Pigs. Needed
prompting for holding figures. Great use of movement. No narration!
Yay! 9 min. Lots of DRO.
Coop - 23 min! I stretched this out to the max. Stopped a couple
of times to remind him to sit up straight (keeps lying down to floor
level to be w/characters -- is this ok? Seems like most kids do
this). I let him lay down a couple of times but once he seemed to
"drift", I interrupted. Acting & conversation was
really good. Theme was a b-day party. He was picking up on some
great cues (verbal & physical). I tried to make the play a group
thing, i.e., 5 kids, playing, planning, etc. He was very engaging
& came up with original ideas and comments. Had a quiet body,
held figures nicely (we also used pets in house). DRO'd eye contact
& paying attn. Solitary - 6 min. Circus. Too many animal noises.
Needed prompts to stop overdoing it. Didn't let it continue for
long. Used "time to stop".
P.N. - Cooperative: We're drifting away from creating a theme environment
where animals are involved. Please reread [date] sheets on this.
Solitary - Peter & the Wolf. 1st two pages. 7 min. Needed prompts
for holding animals & having them look at ea other. No narration.
Needed prompts to not get stuck on making animal sounds. DRO'd using
words & actions. Coop - 12 min. Animal talent show w/[brother].
Different animals showed judges their talent. He did nice job. Good
at waiting his turn & paying attn. Good job holding animals.
We had to stop b/c [brother] couldn't wait his turn & his animal
forgot where he was. Discussed.
Coop - 13 min. Animals (horse & dog) had to go see the vet.
Farmer took them to animal hospital, he played the doctor. Dog was
sick & horse had a broken ankle. [Brother] was with us -- tried
to use him as a model, esp. personal space. [Big brother] was pretty
flexible with [little bro], picked up on cues & conversation
and gave some intelligent diagnoses & remedies for the animals.
Nice job holding animals when he checked them. Treated them like
a horse & a dog (i.e., he didn't converse with them). DRO.
P.N. - Role Play dog in class -- Monday a dog named Ruff will be
there. If possible, get him to look forward to meeting Ruff
Coop - 20 min w/brother role-played classroom situation. Brought
Ruff to school. Went into dog behavior & possible meaning behind
it (e.g., licking, barking, etc.). He was good at coming up w/ideas.
When asked if he's excited about meeting the dog on Mon., and if
he'd touch him or allow him to lick, he said "no...I'm afraid".
P.N. - [ther name] - see notes re: "Ruff" the dog (previous
page). Talk to him about the real even of his coming to school &
then role play tomorrow's dog visit. "Sparky" is coming
to school on Tuesday.
Did role play as part of PRETEND (see notes there). Coop - Animal
Olympics. Worked on moving animals around course. DRO'd great holding
& moving of animals. Dialogue is in and is great. 14 min. Needed
prompt for eye contact. Solitary - 10 Apples On Top (book). Needed
prompt to hold animal w/o touching it's teeth. Otherwise nice job.
Coop - 19 min. Great job. Tourists went to see animals in jungle.
Nice people & animal interaction. Modeled lots of holding people
& turning them towards ea other when they talked. Picked up
nicely on physical & verbal cues -- DRO. Cleaned up/put away
toys very nicely. DRO. Solitary - Peter & the Wolf. Spent about
10 min w/him before he cont'd in solitary play - he was getting
a little too stuck on the details of the story, i.e. exact wording
& insignificant sequence of story. Tried to get him to be a
little more flexible before he cont'd on his own. Played about 4-6
min in solitary - told him to wrap it up b/c we were running late.
DRO'd not getting too carried away w/the wolf.
Coop - 17 min. Nice job. He set up train tracks--amazing. Really
great joining tracks, etc. Pretended to play a traveling circus.
Had to load animals in trains. Commute to new circus site &
then unload. Had train accident on the way and one animal got hurt.
He did great job picking up on cues and knew what to do; i.e., call
the doctor, take care of the animal, etc. DRO'd his not getting
carried away w/animals or trains. Nice acting. Solitary - I don't
know if this counts, but I let him continue w/ above theme but added
more animals to his play. He was more interested in the trains.
Needed prompts to pick up animals. Did OK w/play, except that it
wasn't predominantly animals - 8 min.
Solitary - 10 min. Jungle animals met forest animals. He was calm
about everything. Got to use wolf after I debriefed him about being
stuck on howling, etc. Nice job handling animals & acting ea
part. Prompted him a couple of times to hold them better. DRO'd
quiet tone. Coop - 15 min. Very stuck at first on wanting to use
them in Pretend & yesterday. He was flexible about it. Played
animal fair. Children go on rides & visit/feed the animals.
Got a little carried away w/animal noises. Stopped when I said cut
it out. Used global DRO.
Solitary - Peter Pan - 3-4 min. at most w/o wandering off task &
tactile stim on dolls. Coop - 9 min. Same probs as above, but shaped
Solitary - Horton Hatches the Egg. DRO'd holding animals in middle
& having them face ea other. Nice job with dialogue.
Coop - 13 min. DRO'd holding animals & e.c. Much better w/ following
leads & staying in the action.
Solitary - The Adventures of Taxi Dog. Setting up was good but he
got too carried away with acting the dog part. Too much "licking",
barking, etc. Needed prompts not to overdo it. Had a hard time taking
prompts today. Told him to stop b/c he was overdoing it. Lasted
Coop - 13 min. Started out rough b/c he wasn't answering 1st time.
Upset b/c he didn't have his choice of what to play (b/c he didn't
answer). I chose trip to safari -- once I started to act out, he
became interested & joined in. Nice job listening at first but
wasn't flexible. Kept wanting to change rules, dialogue, etc.
Referenced to similar situation that occurred in school. Needed
prompts to hold people & animals closer to floor. Cleaned up
nicely & quickly but needed prompt.
Coop - Played desert. 14 min. Nice job. DRO'd holding animals, staying
in char & dialog.
Solitary - Goldilocks & the Three Bears. DRO'd staying in char
& correct holding of animals. Nice job w/action & dialogue.
P.N. - See notes in General about his going off on tangents from
his own life. Remind him not to bring in things from his own life
but to make things up & use the things YOU make up as well.
Notes please. [me-listers: sometime soon I'll go through our "General"
notes section -- one entry was written by ea therapist for every
session we had EVER--and type out all the Parent Notes, something
that might be very useful to many. I believe lots of global (i.e.,
across drills) strategies were delineated there. There's more than
a loose-leaf full]
Only Coop today w/[playdate]. Spent 15 min. & 25 min. playing
w/jungle theme (people visiting animals there). First 15 min consisted
mostly of the two deciding or trying to decide on what to "play"
--- [Son's name] tried to direct EVERYTHING! (i.e., "let's
play dinosaurs", etc.) I let them play as naturally as possible
but once I saw him directing, I prompted [playdate] to reel him
in to his ([playdate]'s) play. He had a hard time accepting this
and needed some prompts to listen to [playdate] 1st time. Did a
nice job holding animals very well. [Playdate] DRO'd him naturally
about his play. 2nd part - He went off on his own for a good 12
min. Didn't pay attn. to [playdate] in terms of Coop play. Needed
prompts to listen & do things a different way (i.e., other person's
way). Asked him to be flexible. This seemed to work a bit. [Playdate]
managed to get him to play w/him last 10-12 min. He fluctuated between
calm play and predator play. [Playdate] suggested animals with opened
mouths are yawning, not growling (pretty cool suggestion!). One
thing that really stood out was that he paid attn. to [playdate]
when he was explaining why animals yawn or why people want to pet
animals. Golden Rule came up when [playdate] said if you treat the
animals nicely, i.e. - pet instead of bite, then they will treat
you nicely. DRO and praise.
Farm animals & people. I stood back first & watched. [Playdate]
was good at asking/including him in everything he did. -- i.e.,
building farm w/blocks. He had difficulty joining [playdate] in
tasks that were tedious or that required time & patience (blocks).
He sort of went on his own. Got stuck on Daffy Duck being a farm
animal wanting to "transform" himself. His acting was
exaggerated. [Playdate] prompted him to not play "crazy".
He listened to this and praised him for acting more calmly. As far
as storyline goes, he wasn't really following any. Neither was [playdate].
They mostly performed actions of farm animals & farmers (i.e.,
taking care of some animals). Lasted 15 min. Both cleaned up nicely!
P.N. - Need notes regarding his going off on tangents from his own
life or narrating Coop play.
Solitary - Three Little Pigs - 8 min. Needed prompting for holding
animals & e.c. Nice following of story line. Got carried away
w/ noise when wolf ate pig. Needed control prompt. DRO'd self-control.
Coop - Played jungle animals - visit their friends in the zoo. 16
min. Lots of work on holding animals & looking. He had hard
time keeping fingers away from their mouths. Moved to action &
quick movement to shape him away from adding extra off-the-topic
dialogue (e.g., "he's my brother") that took away from
the action. Worked on staying w/ the main idea.
P.N. - [Ther. below], please read [above ther initials/above entry
Solitary - Corduroy - 7 min. Needed lots of prompting to begin.
Had hard time following storyline which wasn't really too difficult.
He kept wanting me to stay & play w/him. I provided initial
assistance i.e., helping him out with props & setting up. He
wouldn't take it any further. When he tried he didn't stay focused
on main idea of story. Coop - 13 min. - w/[brother] who was great
role model. He did lots of nice natural play w/me, responded to
my ?s, etc. Pretended we were in desert taking pictures of lizards
& kangaroos. He didn't hold animals correctly despite prompts
& even a warning. Kept wanting to make play aggressive w/predators.
Had to stop him a few times. Acting was uncontrolled & exaggerated.
I had him stop & watch last 4 min so that he would learn. Tried
to keep actions quick & dialogue at a minimum like [above ther/above
Coop - 25 min. Had to stop & start a lot b/c we used train tracks
w/people & animals. He had hard time using them. Wouldn't take
prompts or listen to story line (people traveling and watching animals
eating in fields). Very stuck on the tracks & trains. Wouldn't
hold people or animals correctly. [Brother] was there -- Megan used
him as model. He was upset when it was time to stop...wanted to
leave train tracks out, etc. Actions were down as well as conversation.
Think he needs to play w/train tracks an entire day until he's bored
w/them. He's too stuck.
P.N. - No...he needs to listen to grown-ups now [there was an earlier
time in therapy when we would have left them out to desensitize,
but I think we felt that this was too late in the game to do this].
Solitary - 8 min. Shy Little Horse (in yellow compilation book).
Much better holding animals & people. Still some frenzied moving
w/animals, but only momentarily & he gets himself back on track.
Nice job. Good use of action -- didn't intro unimportant details.
Coop - 14 min. Barbie & Ken let their pets go back to the jungle.
Great job holding animals & person. E.C. w/dolls still not great
-- DRO'd when I got it. Followed along nicely & interjected
his own parts appropriately.
Coop - 26 min. Really nice. George & Mary go the pet store to
buy pet -- used dogs & a lizard as pets. Great job holding animals
& paying attn. Listened carefully & watched actions. He
didn't go off the topic & he kept to nice quick actions. E.C.
very good. Silly behavior stopped right away w/one prompt. DRO &
heavy praise for self-control.
Coop - 12 min. [Ther. friend], Megan, [brother] and I. Megan directed
everything. "Trip to the Zoo" was the theme. He wasn't
paying attn. to the whole plan, characters, animals, etc. (i.e.,
not entering the play). Stopped & debriefed. He joined in but
wanted to direct himself, kept changing ideas, etc. She debriefed
him whenever issues like this came up. Focused on what he could
have done better, etc. (i.e., constantly debriefed). It seems like
a lot of the play ended up being about how to play instead of actually
playing; it's slowly building up quality.
P.N. - I want you to keep up what I was doing.
Work hard on his following other people's ideas
Direct Cooperative Play 100% (same strategies as Pretend/ Fantasy
w/props). DRO if he injects something appropriate.
- Work on QUALITY over duration (shape)
If he tries to reel you into Solitary & turn it into Cooperative
now, let him.... He needs more work now in Coop.
- Have [brother] join him a lot (work on instigating/egging on and
Coop - 15 min. Very on with Coop today. Pretended to shop for a
pet. I directed 100% and he came up w/a couple of great ideas. Heavy
praise & I used his ideas (i.e., house and cats). For house,
he pretended to fold paper like a fan to make stairs as a prop(!)
Sharing ideas was very good. Accepted everything I said. Nice "picturing"
things and used animals very appropriately -- occasionally had to
be told to hold an animal or person better. E.C. between characters
was great. Solitary - 8 min. After Coop where we bought cats, I
let him take them home & continue on his own (how to take care
of them, feed them, litter box, etc. -- man in the store gave a
lesson about Pet Care). Didn't ask to be joined! Played nicely except
for holding animals/characters. Needed reminder. DRO'd globally
- i.e., great job.
Coop - 10 min. Animal show & tell. Animals brought in their
owners to class. Did this w/[brother]. I directed 100% & used
[brother] as a model of following me. He did a very nice job. DRO'd
sharing ideas & picturing a good ending to the story. Nice turn-
taking after prompt. Ignored [brother]'s request -- worked on this
& praised him when he listened. Used global DRO for holding
animals, good e.c., and getting [brother]'s message. No probs accepting
my direction & he used my example nicely when it was his turn.
DRO great job. Solitary - I told a story about a zebra & a frog
(sorta like a fable) and acted it out w/animals as I told it. Then
I let him do it. He was highly motivated & did a great job.
6 min. Global praise.
Coop - 12 min. Really nice - No probs accepting my ideas & very
nice observation. Went along w/whatever I orchestrated. Took turns
using different animals. Global praise. Excellent job holding animals
too! Solitary - 8 min. Let him continue on his own (we pretended
to go to a horse show). He played a few minutes before invited me
back. Needed help holding horses & people. Modeled doing things
one at a time.
Coop - Megan, [Brother], him and I - 17 min. together. Nice job.
[Brother] was great! Spoke in low voice. I modeled a lot for him
on how to speak softly. [Name] was also soft-spoken but needed reminders
once in a while. Nice job handling animals and people. [Brother]
was great at coming up w/lines. We pretended to be in the woods
with many animals. People were visiting forest and cutting down
trees. At first he was rigid and only wanted to be a wolf. I let
[brother] interact a lot but I always directed, commented and DRO'd
[brother] for "great" ideas. He finally was more flexible
and allowed [brother] to be the wolf. [Bro] did wonderful job modeling
a "nice" wolf. [Name] seemed impressed. He went along
w/acting & dialogue. I faded myself out & let them continue
together for 10 min more. Great! Perfect voice and he used people
well. Some interesting themes came up with his play (e.g., at one
point he had girl lying down and when [bro] went to talk to her
he said "she's dead") [Brother] was great - probed [Name]
often. "Why is she dead?" He said the "lizard killed
her". He WASN'T doing a predator theme here. This seemed very
different. His affect was calm & pensive. Thought it was interesting.
Coop - 14 min. [Brother] joined us. We played circus. Used lots
of props. [Bro] was trying to instigate & egg him on but he
resisted. DRO. He was a nice model. Voice was a little loud; modeled
& prompted him to use "inside" voice. DRO when he
did. Held animals nicely & followed my ideas even though he
didn't want to at first. I let him throw out some ideas & used
one or two to model sharing of ideas. Good job. Sitting still was
ok & he used nice actions. At the end he exaggerated a little
too much (i.e., stamped w/elephant too long). "Cut it out"
Solitary - 6 min. I told story of tiger & horse & man and
acted it out. Then he had turn to act it out. Then he watched [bro]
do the same thing. He held the animals and doll very nicely w/much
better e.c. Needed prompt not to smash animals together (closed
down & he started again). This worked well.
Coop - 21 min. Dinosaurs & people. People visited museum. Great
job holding animals, people & watching what I was doing. E.C.
between dolls was fantastic. Didn't stray off subject. Listened
nicely to story & stuck w/it. At the end he asked if he could
change the story a bit and I let him & encouraged his ideas
b/c they were good. He didn't get silly. Put away toys nicely but
needed reminder. Global DRO & praise.
Solitary - 8 min. He started on his own -- wanted to pretend people
were in the forest w/animals. A little lazy and wasn't listening
to prompts to act. Kept narrating & did some persev banging
& growling of animals I joined him & modeled some calmer
play before we stopped.
Coop - About 12 min. He was very sensitive (started to cry) when
I didn't play w/jungle animals. Told him it was a good idea but
I had already told him we were playing w/farm animals & class
trip visit. He was stubborn about joining me but once he did, it
was ok. Nice handling dolls, paying attn., and acting. He was a
little silly and wanted to interject some silly ideas in the play,
but I directed away from that sort of stuff, esp predator theme.
P.N. - Take others' ideas.
Coop - People riding animals on a trail. He had hard time focusing
on the person & not having the animals talk. Some smashing together
of person & animal. Shut down & restarted drill. Used global
praise when things were going well. When he was involved in the
story (action), he came up with some good ideas (built on mine as
well--others' ideas), but after 3 or 4 min he would drift again
& I would have to stop & restart. Solitary - Took turns
w/me & [bro] acting out a story w/animals. Still needed prompting
to keep storyline & not stray off into violent themes. Held
animals very well. Global praise. 4 min.
Coop - 22 min. Megan played with us for first 6 min. Preservation
Society was looking for a looking for a lose wolf. He had trouble
accepting our ideas in the beg. Needed prompts & reminders to
follow along w/the story. Some were needed to hold dolls on the
floor. During some parts he took the lead and acted really well
w/animals & dolls. DRO. Became more flexible w/accepting ideas
and not straying off topic.
Coop - 18 min. Tiger escapes circus to go back home to jungle. He
did well w/holding animals/people. First 4 min really nice job,
followed my ideas and directions. Towards the end he wanted some
of his ideas in. I was flexible, let him have some of his ideas
in the play. He has a hard time taking the role of someone who is
the "loser" or "villain", etc. in play. Seems
to project himself onto the character. I went over this w/him, told
him that it's not a reflection of himself, etc. Referenced this
w/school & playing with friends. Spoke about flexibility of
different roles. Storyline was good until the end when he again
wanted to do things his way.
Coop - 12 min w/[brother]. Played animal trainer. Alternated being
trainer & animals. He had some probs following [bro]'s directions
(they weren't very good directions though). He had his animal jumping
up and down (out of context) when [bro] tried to direct his doing
something else. Shut down activity. Resumed & used global praise
when [name] was involved. Overall nice job. Involved in play, held
animals/people well. E.C. between characters has improved immensely.
Coop - 21 min. Really good job. Worked w/[bro] too. Played "jungle
animals make friends w/tourists". He was very cooperative --
followed ideas & held animals/people very well. [Bro] did great
job too. [Name] included him well in his play. Global DRO. Cleaned
up nicely with [bro]. Great model.
Solitary - 7 min. In the living rm. A little stuck on firetruck
& having boy climb up and down ladder. Cut it out worked but
I had to say it 2x before he stopped. Held toys nicely. Needed reminder
to use lower ("morning") voice. Coop - 15 min. Picked
up with him after solitary play. Tried to work on his playing the
character who had a "flaw" or "weakness" or
did something "wrong". He had a hard time accepting this
and got sensitive about being the "loser". Tried to explain
that HE'S not the loser, that no one is b/c it's just pretend/play,
etc. Gave him ideas of what to say in situations where he's not
the "hero", etc. I think he's getting it.
Coop - 11 min. Played w/zoo animals & people. Was good at picking
up cues I was giving. Held animals nicely but got a little carried
away w/noises & not following my ideas. Needed to stop a couple
of times to remind him how to play & share ideas.
Coop - 16 min. w/[brother] used animals & people. He was a little
loud. Modeling voice and tone helped. Nice job following ideas and
holding animals. Good model for [bro]. Didn't egg him on -- Global
DRO and praise. Nice e.c. between animals & betwn people. Didn't
make weird noises. Good clean-up.
Coop - 14 min -- with Megan & [bro]. Sea animals. He did great
job. Held animals appropriately w/good e.c. Followed our leads &
elaborated appropriately. No noises & no destructive play. Tons
of global praise.
Coop - 23 min. Jungle animals & dinosaurs. Excellent calm body
and really nice job following ideas and directions. Held animals
well, responded to cues & had great voice throughout play. Global
DRO & pointed out the specifics (of his play) that was great
at the end. Needed one prompt to clean up.
Coop - w/broth kids. 12 min. Animals Circus. Good. He held animals
nicely, DRO & praise for being a good model for brother. A few
reminders needed for softer voice. I modeled for him.
Coop - 32 min. Very nice. Played with both of them. People went
on trip to New Zealand to go snorkeling in the ocean. Pretended
to have very friendly fish, turtles, etc. Great job holding animals
& following directions. Voice volume was good. Worked on talking
slower. Used lots of props imaginatively -- DRO. He was a good model
for [brother]. Lots of praise.
Coop - 15 min. We had to stop b/c he had trouble focusing on play.
Kept straying to play w/props & not following leads. Played
w/3 characters & ocean animals. He kept moving away from his
char to be ocean animals & strayed away from action. Discussed
this and he got it.
Pretended to play in forest -- used forest animals. Went over the
"things" forest animals do -- i.e., eat, play, sleep,
eat, etc. He held them nicely -- lots of DRO. Nice job w/wolf and
not getting carried away w/predator theme. Followed my ideas &
brother's too. Good flexibility. Used "people" characters
very appropriately. DRO.
Coop - we played using more people this time. Very nice job. Held
them really well; excellent job picking up on cues & acting
appropriately. Pretended two sisters were on train. One got hurt,
etc. Carried play on for a solid 22 min. No weirdness at all. He
was very engaged & had some bright ideas that he shared. Lots
of praise. Solitary - 7 min. After coop, I let him continue on his
own. No probs. Voice was great. He stuck with coop theme and had
a nice closure for his story. Cleaned up nicely. DRO & praise.
Played with dinosaurs w/me and brother. He had hard time today.
Needed prompts for voice & to stay w/activity. Got stuck on
Lego props (window & door) and left the game we were playing.
12 min. Discussed leaving activity and then started again for a
short positive interaction to complete.
Coop with me and brother. 12 min. He needed prompts to keep focus
on the action and not get distracted by the props (school bus).
He also had hard time with space. Dolls were on top of ea other.
Once he got into the play, this was less of a prob. I tried to fade
myself later & have him and [bro] play together, but this wasn't
a great idea (except for a chance to discuss compromising) and it
didn't really go anywhere Solitary - 6 min. He played with Magic
School bus characters. Needed prompts to set up. Also had chars
on top of ea other. Action was minimal -- almost all dialogue.
P.N. - No.....that WAS a good idea. You should fade & observe
as often as possible to take his temperature.
Coop - w/[brother] and I used jungle animals & people. [Bro]
was in and out of the play. He handled this distraction nicely.
Didn't have much of an opportunity to observe the two of them playing
together b/c [bro] kept leaving. He was well-behaved, held all toys
well, global DRO. Didn't get carried away with any behaviors. Some
trouble paying attn. to me when I played -- i.e., here and there
he wouldn't answer my people on first try. Cleaned up nicely. Praised.
Played variation of Land Before Time. He had hard time following
[bro]'s action. He had his own scripts & tried to make [bro]
follow, disregarding [bro]'s ideas. Prompted him & redirected
him to follow [bro]'s ideas & not to be so stuck to his own
script. He followed nicely when I was leading. Needed 1 prompt for
space between animals. Held animals nicely. Later we played with
Barbies. He followed nicely when I was playing but when I faded
he didn't go along with [bro] -- he went off on his own tangent.
Much better e.c. & space w/human figures than with animals.
Coop - 17 min. Just the 2 of us -- nice job. Listened to ideas,
held animals & people very well, came up w/some really cute
acts, very spontaneous & connected to theme of play which was
people buying pets, UPS delivery and neighbor takes care of them
when they are away. Space between animals didn't seem to be a problem.
e.c. was fine during play and voice was great.
16 min. Played w/figures & cars. Characters went to school &
then went over to ea other's houses & played basketball. He
did a really nice job. I faded & he played w/[brother] for 5
min. Great. Lots of praise.
23 min. Played w/[brother]. Animals & people. Jungle theme and
Queen of the Jungle w/powers to cure sick animals & people.
Very nice job following my ideas & directions. [Bro] was great
too. He held people & animals well. Didn't have oppor to let
them play alone b/c [brother] was sick. Overall wonderful play.
18 min. Coop - 1st set up scene. My doll lived on a farm, his in
the country. Picked out animals that fit. He got stuck on making
cows moo & kept mooing even when they weren't in the action.
Discussed this w/Jim at end. Needed some prompting & refocusing
to stay on person & not go off track and get stuck on animals.
Played Ms. Frizzle's class visits Jurassic era w/dinos. 23 min.
Really great job. No problems touching objects, held people &
animals nicely but needed a couple of prompts to hold only one in
ea hand. Acting was great, good personal space & e.c. betwn
characters & between us these transitions were very smooth.
Lots of praise. Voice was fine.
Played animal games with [bro] and me. 16 min. Nice job. He even
followed [bro]'s suggestions -- Global praise. Held animals nicely
w/good e.c. He came up w/great idea for animals to go on slide.
Translated this into movement & he got us involved nicely. Great
Played w/animals & people. [Bro] also joined in. I did a same/
different theme (helping [bro]). Used "brown" dolls and
different types & colors of animals who wanted to play w/ea
other and were rewarded for it. Both kids did good jobs. He held
people & animals well -- DRO & praise. Didn't touch small
objects and had good e.c.
18 min coop & 5 min solitary. Played Peter & The Wolf. He
began with narration but responded to prompting to act it out. Some
difficulty w/e.c. between characters, otherwise held figures well.
Animal noises were used a few too many times and a bit too loud,
but shaped them down & he didn't get carried away. DRO.
Coop - 25 min. Just the two of us. Nice play. Used animals (water)
and people. Good job following directions, e.c., and play theme.
Behaviors were very good. No weird play w/objects and held toys
Coop - 23 min. Used lizard. Started to talk about tail & how
lizard uses it to catch and eat it's prey. I took the focus off
the "predator" theme right away by adding people &
other animals. He wasn't stuck on this too long (1-2 min) then he
quickly started following my directions and got into the theme.
Nice job holding animals -- just a little lazy w/people (not making
e.c.) and holding them lazily. Needed prompt to pay attn to this.
Solitary - 8 min. - Played with playmobil people & dog &
props (small ones) w/me and [bro]. He often got carried away and
had figures fly during which time he made some noises. Shaped these
down w/prompting at ea occurrence & DRO of quiet appropriate
verbalization. Held animals & characters well. No prob w/small
objects or props. Coop - 10 min. Good job -- joining independently
and very appropriately.
Coop - Only the two of us. Dinosaurs & Toy Story animals. Initially
some difficulty focusing. Interested in what animals' names would
be & props. Worked on keeping focus & staying w/the action.
Needed lots of prompting to not touch ears and mouth of dog. Hard
time at end cleaning up without playing. Became oppositional &
didn't listen 1st time. Needed T.O. warning to respond to redirection.
Putting items away quickly helped to cut down on playing.
Coop - The two of us. Farm animals & farmers. Some trouble holding
animals & people -- i.e., facing ea other when conversing. Went
off topic a few times. Pointed this out to him right away. He got
back on track every time but happened a few times. Towards end he
was much better, nice focus, action & following leads. DRO &
praise. Good clean-up.
With [brother] and me. Nice calm body and holding was great. DRO.
[Bro] was a bit of a challenge (interrupting & acting silly).
He was fine interacting with him & teaching him to play better.
Nice job w/e.c. between animals. Let them play together while I
watched. He was very good -- nice job interacting with [brother].
Came up w/some nice actions & dialogue. DRO'd him for being
good model for [bro]. Voice was quiet too.
17 min. With Megan, [brother] and me. Dogs & people. He did
nice job w/holding animal. Good e.c. & personal space. [Brother]
behaved well. Able to stay w/the action & focusing on the important
aspects of play w/o straying. Nice job. Prob stopping play to clean
70. Solitary - 10 min. Needed 1 prompt for space between animals.
Needed help developing storyline today.
20 min. Nice job. Dogs and farm animals. Nice following leads and
staying on topic. Good actions & helped to clean up.
25 min. Animals & people. Great job. Very nice holding toys
& participating in story line. Voice was great, nice sitting,
e.c. and cleanup. Space needed a few reminders but prompts worked
fine. Nice job.
Coop - 19 min. We set up our own zoo -- he needed some help getting
organized and I prompted him to watch what I was doing and get ideas
from that. Once the zoos were set up, we ea took 1 character &
took the other one on a tour. He participated really well. Went
off on tangent once talking about relationship betwn tiger and lion
but naturally came back w/glance prompt. Some trouble w/making noises
when driving car but stopped w/prompt (seemed natural, but just
in case). Really nice job. No trouble w/ some very small objects
25 min. Total 20 Coop; 5 solitary. Excellent job -- forest &
jungle animals were friends and people came to meet them. Great
holding characters, staying on topic, and e.c. between all characters.
Voice was perfect. Needed one prompt to not overdo gorilla sounds.
Helped to clean up very nicely. Praise & DRO. Solitary - very
nice, cont'd on own from Coop theme.
Solitary - 8 min. Nice. Used airplane, people & animals. Couldn't
really hear his conversation, but his actions were great. Stopped
(just in case) when he had airplane "shaking" in his hands
all over the place. He was flexible. Coop - 13 min. w/[bro] - Thanksgiving
dinner w/animals ([bro]'s idea!) and airplane crashing into jungle.
He was flexible w/idea sharing. Needed a few reminders to hold only
one toy in hand at a time and not two or three. Voice was fine and
didn't get loud even though [bro] did. He was respectful and orchestrated
some great turn-taking.
Used farm animals -- Animal thanksgiving party w/both of them. He
was a little bit rigid w/wanting to make a cat chase the mouse in
the barn all the time. Needed a prompt to stop. Otherwise fine,
very good following ideas, holding animals and playing w/brother.
[Bro] was great! Sang some Txsgiving songs. Both cleaned up nicely.
Didn't need prompts.
10 min. Nice & brief -- people went to the animal fair. DRO
& praise for ACCEPTING MY IDEA. He was very flexible. Didn't
get carried away w/actions. Nice job holding animals & playing
gently. Global DRO, esp for being a great model for [brother].
Coop - 12 min & 13 min. Played two themes w/[bro]. 1st one was
[bro]'s idea. There was a fire & the animals had to work together
to put it out, but [bro] the alligator didn't want them to get to
the water. [Name] needed some prompting for e.c. of animals, otherwise
really good. Reinforced at end that using [bro]'s idea was fun.
Second game played animal Thanksgiving. Really great participation.
Flexible use of props. Needed prompt to clean up quietly and stop
playing during clean up.
Coop - Played cow hide & seek w/brother. 16 min. Great job.
Solitary - Played w/brother. Nice job getting other person's message.
Played Xmas - Variation of Txsgiving game played the other day -
12 min - animals & people decorate Xmas tree. Nice job. [Bro]
was a little impatient and did lots of interrupting. Used [name]
as positive model for [bro]. Nice job. No weird touching objects.
DRO. Good job following ideas and being flexible. Tried to fade
myself a bit to let them play. He did pretty well with this but
[bro] tried to provoke him (i.e., took toys and ran o/o room, etc.).
[Name] listened to my redirection very nicely. Global DRO &
20 min. Played RESCUE w/Star Wars ship. Story was that we had to
rescue animals & people before Darth Vader attacked. He cooperated
very nicely. Though it seemed quite normal, got a little carried
away w/blasting ship noises, but stopped on his own. No problem
holding toys appropriately.
Coop 25 min. - Played with Barbie dolls. He got a little carried
away, focusing on props over dolls, dropping his doll & focusing
on play food. Stopped action & redirected him. Some strange
sound effects & actions. Bread was flying. Stopped action. He
was able to be redirected easily. E.C. betwn dolls was somewhat
improved when he was holding doll.
25 min - Played w/animals & people. Storyline was a wizard wanted
to give T. Rex some potion to turn him evil. Told him to make it
that the wizard mistakenly gave T. Rex a GOOD potion. He agreed.
Did nice job, followed storyline. Needed some reminders to keep
his toys grounded (not in air). [Bro] interrupted a LOT. Tried to
shape his behavior by reinforcing everything good he did but it
was still difficult. [Name] was very patient w/him. Lots of praise.
Solitary - Used Back to Future car & two dolls to act out some
part of movie. Held dolls well. I joined later & strayed somewhat
from the storyline. He initially had difficulties and tried subtly
to bring me back to the story, but then went along. Great job following
my lead & staying focused.
Coop - 12 min. Both kids were a bit tired. This play seemed quieter
than usual. Used dolls & animals, held both nicely. Needed some
prompting to interact w/ea other. Nice job staying focused on story
and using good voice.
Coop - 25 min. Played with both kids. He had lots of good ideas.
Had him narrow down so we can focus on one. Needed a few reminders
not to pursue any extra ideas. Played with people, animals and spaceship.
Woody accidentally discovers aliens in ship while looking for bunnies
in the forest (!) Voices were loud w/ both kids needing reminders.
[Bro] wandered out of the room 3X when things didn't go his way.
DRO'd him when he was flexible. [Name] was extremely patient. DRO.
No problems with small objects. Great help cleaning up.
25 min. Both kids -- Used people & animals. Theme was we were
going to a baseball game. He stayed focused and on topic. [Bro]
needed a few prompts to stay with us. Nice job holding animals correctly.
Coop - 15 min. Animals & people. His ideas were great. Buddy
doll was a giant and other people on planet were afraid at first.
Very Gulliver's Travels. Cleaned up nicely. Good job.
Coop - 26 min. Great. Pretended Han Solo was an explorer/ photographer
who filmed wolves and then befriended them. Nice job handling characters
and animals, stayed on topic and had some great ideas. Lots of praise.
Cleaned up nicely. DRO.
Click here for the full
range of Asperger's and Autism fact sheets at www.autism-help.org
See the Behavior
& Life skills page for tips on developing programs you can
implement at home.
The notes are by the parents, Megan and Jim Sumlin
(pseudonyms), who feel strongly that this information should be
freely available to all who might benefit from it. They ask only
that these notes belong in the public domain, and are not to be
claimed or copyrighted by any person who is or will in the future
be seeking monetary gain for wide distribution of same. If this
information has proved useful, click here
to download their information package. You will need the Winzip
program to decompress the files.